February 3, 2017

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the skin’s pigment-producing cells, called melanocytes. These cells make melanin, which is responsible for the color in skin, eyes and hair. The word ‘melanoma’ comes from the Greek word ‘melas’, meaning black.

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer. There are three main types of skin cancer that are named after the cells that are affected: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and melanoma. Melanoma develops from the melanocytes (pigment cells).

It usually occurs on parts of the body that have been overexposed to the sun. However, rare melanomas can also start in a part of the skin or another part of the body that has never been exposed to the sun, such as the nervous system, eye and mucous membrane (lining of the mouth and digestive tract), as well as under the feet and nails.

Melanoma is one of the least common skin cancers. However, it is one of the most serious types because it is more likely to spread to other parts of the body, especially if not detected early. If melanoma is found early, treatment is often successful.

Melanocytes produce melanin to help protect the skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation i.e. sunlight. When melanocyte cells aggregate together in the skin during childhood or adolescence they form a mole.

Most moles are quite safe, however sometimes the melanocytes in a mole begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way. If they start to grow in a unregulated way, either expanding outwards or down into the lower layers of the skin, they can become a melanoma.

Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer and grows very quickly if left untreated. It can spread to the lower part of your skin (dermis), enter the lymphatic system or bloodstream and then spread to other parts of the body e.g. lungs, liver, brain or bone.

Melanoma kills an estimated 10,130 people in the US annually.

Types of Melanoma

Skin melanomas (cutaneous melanomas) are categorised by their appearance, thickness and how far they have spread.

  • Superficial spreading melanoma – This is the most common type of melanoma, making up almost 50% of all cases. It starts as a brown or black spot that spreads across the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). This type of melanoma becomes dangerous when it invades the lower layer of the skin (dermis).
  • Nodular melanoma – This type makes up about 10% of melanomas. It is usually a raised lump on the surface of the skin that is often red, pink, brown or black and feels firm to touch. It is a fast growing and aggressive form of melanoma, so if suspected it is important to see your GP (general practitioner) without delay.
  • Lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) – This type of melanoma is most common in older people. It makes up about 10% of melanomas and begins as a large freckle (lentigo maligna) in an area of skin that has had a lot of sun exposure, such as the face, ears, neck and head. It may grow slowly and superficially over many years until it penetrates more deeply into the skin.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma – This is an uncommon type of melanoma that is most commonly found on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet or under the fingernails or toenails. These commonly present as a lightly pigmented, sometimes warty area and do not respond to treatments for warts or tinea. In the nails, they most often present as a long streak of pigment in the nail or discolouration in the skin around the nail.
  • Desmoplastic melanoma – This is another uncommon type of melanoma that presents as a firm, progressively growing lump, often on the head or neck. Many are skin-coloured and not pigmented.
  • Other types of melanoma – There are some other rarer types of melanoma, which start in the eyes, nervous system, anus, genital tract (urethra and vagina) and tissues that line the inside of the nose.
  • Melanoma in-situ – This is when the abnormal cancer cells are only in the epidermis and have not penetrated into the dermis.

Causes

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight is a leading cause behind melanoma. When sunlight hits melanocytes, they make more of the pigment melanin, darkening the skin. This can result in a tan, freckles or moles – the vast majority of which are benign.

Researchers believe that enough UV radiation exposure can damage the DNA in melanocytes, causing them to grow out of control into a tumor. Blistering sunburns in childhood, use of tanning beds and any excessive exposure to UV radiation increases the risk for melanoma.

The most important preventable cause is exposure to too much ultraviolet light in sunlight, especially during the first 20 years of life. There is lots of evidence linking melanoma to this, and melanomas are especially common in white-skinned people who live in sunny countries. The use of artificial sources of ultraviolet light, such as sun beds, also raises the risk of getting a melanoma.

Some people are more likely to get a melanoma than others –

  • People who burn easily in the sun are particularly at risk. Melanoma occurs most often in fair-skinned people who tan poorly. Often they have blond or red hair, blue or green eyes, and freckle easily. Melanomas are less common in dark-skinned people.
  • Past episodes of severe sunburn, often with blisters, and particularly in childhood, increase the risk of developing a melanoma. However, not all melanomas are due to sun exposure, and some appear in areas that are normally kept covered.
  • People with many (more than 50) ordinary moles, or with a very large dark hairy birthmark, have a higher than average chance of getting a melanoma.
  • Some people have many unusual (atypical) moles (known as ‘dysplastic naevi’). They tend to be larger than ordinary moles, to be present in large numbers, and to have irregular edges or colour patterns. The tendency to have these ‘dysplastic naevi’ can run in families and carries an increased risk of getting a melanoma.
  • The risk is raised if another family member has had a melanoma.
  • People who have already had one melanoma are at an increased risk of getting another one.
  • People with a damaged immune system (e.g. as a result of an HIV infection or taking immunosuppressive drugs, perhaps after an organ transplant) have an increased chance of getting a melanoma.

Risk Factors

Anyone can develop melanoma. However, the following factors may increase a person’s risk:

  • Skin type – Some people have skin that is more sensitive to UV radiation. This includes people who have pale, fair or freckled skin; skin that burns easily and doesn’t tan; and people with light-coloured eyes or fair or red hair.
  • Having lots of moles – Adults with more than 10 moles on their arms and more than 100 on their body have an increased risk
  • Childhood tanning/sunburn – Too much sun exposure during childhood and adolescence greatly increases the chance of getting melanoma in later life because damaged cells have more time to develop into cancer. Studies show that people who move after childhood from low to high UV radiation countries, such as from England to Australia, develop melanoma at a lower rate than people born in Australia.
  • UV exposure – Melanoma risk is related to the pattern of UV exposure and not just the amount. People with occasional high UV exposure and sunburn, such as on weekends and holidays, are at increased risk.
  • Age – Melanoma is more common in people over 50 years of age. However, it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in 15–29 year olds.
  • Cancer history – People with a previous melanoma or other type of skin cancer (BCC or SCC) have an increased risk.
  • Family history – People with a strong family history of melanoma have an increased risk.

Symptoms

As with other forms of cancer, the early stages of melanoma may not produce any symptoms. This is why active surveillance is heavily promoted by cancer charities and public health organisations, so as to spot early signs of the disease. Changes in the appearance of the skin are key indicators of melanoma and are also used in the diagnostic process).

  • Skin change – a new spot or mole, or a change in color, shape or size of a current spot or mole
  • Skin sore that fails to heal
  • Spot or sore that becomes painful, itchy, tender or bleeds
  • Spot or lump that looks shiny, waxy, smooth or pale
  • A firm red lump that bleeds or appears ulcerated or crusty
  • A flat, red spot that is rough, dry or scaly.

All melanomas do not look the same, and there are several different types. The ABCD system (below) tells you some of the things to look out for.

A melanoma may show one or more of the following features –

  • Asymmetry – the two halves of the area differ in their shape.
  • Border – the edges of the area may be irregular or blurred, and sometimes show notches.
  • Colour – this may be uneven. Different shades of black, brown and pink may be seen.
  • Diameter – most melanomas are at least 6 mm. in diameter.

Melanomas can appear on any part of the skin but they are most common in men on the body, and in women on the legs.

 

Complications

Melanoma can spread to other parts of the body very quickly. Melanoma treatment can cause side effects, including pain, nausea, and fatigue.

Treatment

Treatment is more difficult when the melanoma has spread to other organs. In this case, it usually cannot be cured. Treatment involves shrinking the skin cancer and making you as comfortable as possible. People may receive –

Chemotherapy – Medicines are used to kill cancer cells. It is usually given if the melanoma has returned or spread.

Immunotherapy – Medications such as interferon or interleukin help your immune system fight the cancer. They may be used along with chemotherapy and surgery.

Radiation treatments – These may be used to relieve pain or discomfort caused by cancer that has spread.

Surgery – Surgery may be done to remove cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. This is done to relieve pain or discomfort associated with the growing cancer.

Alternative Treatment

Antioxidants are compounds in foods and supplement pills that may prevent oxidation, which can damage cells. The compounds are widely consumed by both healthy people and people with cancer for their supposed ability to prevent and fight cancer.

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids found in some plants and fish. A balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is advised for health. Several population studies report that dietary omega-3 fatty acids or fish oil may reduce the risk of developing several different types of cancer.

Copper – Copper is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods, including vegetables, legumes, nuts, grains and fruits, as well as shellfish, avocado, and beef (organs such as liver). Preliminary research reports that lowering copper levels theoretically may arrest the progression of cancer by inhibiting blood vessel growth (angiogenesis).

Vitamin D has been shown to block the growth of cancer tumors. The active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, provides numerous benefits against cancer. This form of vitamin D encourages cells to either adapt to their organ or commit apoptosis (cell suicide). Calcitriol also limits blood supply to the tumor and reduces the spread of cancer.

Chlorophyll – Preliminary evidence in suggest that chlorophyll may aid in the reduction of side effects associated with photodynamic therapies, such as those used in management of malignant tumors.

Selenium is a trace mineral found in soil, water, and some foods. It is an essential element in several metabolic pathways. Several studies suggest that low levels of selenium (measured in the blood or in tissues such as toenail clippings), may be a risk factor for developing cancer.

Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) – GLA is an omega-6 essential fatty acid. Some laboratory and human studies indicate that GLA may have anti-tumor activity and may be used as a cancer treatment adjunct.

Vitamin B (Thiamin) deficiency has been observed in some cancer patients, possibly due to increased metabolic needs.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is derived from two sources: preformed retinoids and provitamin carotenoids. Retinoids, such as retinal and retinoic acid, are found in animal sources such as livers, kidneys, eggs, and dairy products. Carotenoids like beta-carotene (which has the highest vitamin A activity) are found in plants such as dark or yellow vegetables and carrots.

Ginseng – Early studies report that ginseng taken by mouth may be of benefit in cancer prevention, especially if ginseng powder or extract is used

Curcumin is an extract from turmeric spice, natural curcumin supplements are available as capsule over the counter. Since this herb has many benefits, it is of benefit to add it to one’s diet.

Cordyceps is a mushroom, orally administered cordycepin inhibits melanoma cell growth in mice with no adverse effects.

Garlic should certainly be tried for this condition.

Green tea extract has a potent extract EGCG, which is becoming very popular

Melatonin has been studied, it is a pineal hormone.

Mistletoe herb has lectins which kill cancer cells.

Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in primary melanocytes. Exp Dermatol.

Quercetin is a flavonoid

Rosemary extract contains carnosol, a constant constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts, is a phenolic diterpene shown to have antioxidant and anticarcinogen properties.

Resveratrol found in skin of grapes

Ginseng – Early studies report that ginseng taken by mouth may be of benefit in cancer prevention, especially if ginseng powder or extract is used.

Meditation – Not enough research has shown meditation to be of benefit in cancer prevention. More studies are needed.

Psychotherapy is an interactive process between a person and a qualified mental health care professional (psychiatrist, psychologist, clinical social worker, licensed counselor, or other trained practitioner).

Acupuncture, or the use of needles to manipulate the “chi” or body energy, originated in China over 5,000 years ago.

Aromatherapy – Healing with fragrant oils has been used for thousands of years. Aromatherapy is often used in people with chronic illnesses (frequently in combination with massage), with the intention to improve quality of life or well-being.

Reference –

http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/skin-melanoma/melanoma/?region=on

https://www.macmillan.org.uk/information-and-support/melanoma

https://www.mdanderson.org/patients-family/diagnosis-treatment/care-centers-clinics/melanoma-skin-center.html

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154322.php

http://www.cancer.gov/types/skin

http://www.raysahelian.com/melanoma.html

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/kimmel_cancer_center/types_cancer/melanoma.html

http://www.curemelanoma.org/

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/melanoma/basics/definition/con-20026009

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Malignant-melanoma/Pages/Introduction.aspx

http://www.melanoma.org.nz/melanoma/overview/

https://www.melanoma.org.au/understanding-melanoma/what-is-melanoma/

Posted in CANCER
February 3, 2017

Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic form of leukemia where patients’ bone marrow makes too many platelets megakaryocytic hyperplasia, and a hemorrhagic or thrombotic tendency. The excess platelets increase the risk of blood clots which can lead to strokes and heart attacks. Symptoms and signs may include weakness, headaches, paresthesias, bleeding, splenomegaly, and erythromelalgia with digital ischemia.

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is one of several “myeloproliferative neoplasms” (MPNs), a group of closely related blood cancers that share several features, notably the “clonal” overproduction of one or more blood cell lines. All clonal disorders begin with one or more changes (mutations) to the DNA in a single cell; the altered cells in the marrow and the blood are the offspring of that one mutant cell. Other MPNs include polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis.

In ET, there is mainly an overproduction of platelet-forming cells, called “megakaryocytes,” in the marrow. This results in the release of too many platelets into the blood. A platelet is a small blood cell. Its function is to start the process of forming a plug (clot) in response to blood vessel injury in order to prevent or minimize bleeding. When platelets are present in very high numbers they may not function normally and may cause a blockage in blood vessels, known as a “thrombus.” Less often, a high number of platelets can also cause bleeding problems. Another word for platelet is “thrombocyte.” The term “thrombocythemia” means an excess of platelets in theblood. The term “essential” indicates that the increase inplatelets is an innate problem of the blood cell production in the bone marrow.

Essential thrombocythaemia is a rare chronic disease diagnosed in an estimated 3 per 100,000 population. Although it can occur at any age, even (rarely) in children, essential thrombocythaemia usually affects older people, with most patients diagnosed between the ages of 50 and 70 years. It occurs equally in both males and females.

Causes

Bone marrow — spongy tissue inside the bones, contains stem cells that can become red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets (thrombocytes). Platelets stick together, helping blood to form a clot that stops bleeding when there is a damage to the blood vessel, such as when a person gets a cut. A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood.

If a person has essential, or primary, thrombocythemia, the bone marrow makes too many platelet-forming cells (megakaryocytes). The excess platelets may not function normally, leading to abnormal clotting or bleeding.

The exact cause of essential thrombocythemia and similar conditions, known as myeloproliferative disorders, isn’t known. About 80 percent of people with the disorder have an acquired gene mutation contributing to the disease. This may involve the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR) or MPL gene mutation.

A high platelet count that’s caused by an underlying condition such as an infection or iron deficiency is called reactive, or secondary, thrombocythemia. People with secondary thrombocythemia have less risk of blood clots and bleeding than do people with essential thrombocythemia.

Risk Factors

Some risk factors associated with ET include –

  • Gender – Women are 1.5 times more likely than men to develop the condition.
  • Age – People older than 60 are most likely to develop the condition, although 20 percent of those affected are younger than 40.
  • Environment – Exposure to chemicals or to electrical wiring may increase an individual’s risk for the condition.

Symptoms

Many patients are asymptomatic, diagnosed after blood counts as part of a routine check-up reveal a high platelet count. When symptoms are present, they may include fatigue, or may be related to small or large vessel disturbance or bleeding.

Small vessel disturbances (often considered vasomotor in nature) can lead to –

  • Headache
  • Vision disturbances or silent migraines
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Coldness or blueness of fingers or toes
  • Burning, redness, and pain in the hands and feet

Thrombotic complications can be quite serious, leading to –

  • Stroke
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
  • Heart attack
  • Deep vein thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolus (blood clot in the lung)

Bleeding can manifest as –

  • Easy bruising, nosebleeds or heavy periods
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding or blood in the urine

Other Symptoms –

  • Weakness
  • Bruising and bleeding
  • Gout
  • Ocular migraines
  • Paresthesias of the hands and feet
  • Thrombosis and thromboembolic events

Complications

The abnormal blood clotting of essential thrombocythemia can lead to a variety of potentially serious complications, including –

  • Pregnancy complications – While many women who have thrombocythemia have normal, healthy pregnancies, uncontrolled thrombocythemia can lead to miscarriage and other complications. The risk of complications may be reduced with regular checkups and medication, so be sure to have the doctor regularly monitor the condition.
  • Stroke – A clot that blocks blood flow to the brain can cause a stroke. If a person develops signs and symptoms of a stroke, get immediate medical attention.
  • Heart attack – A clot that obstructs blood flow to the heart can cause a heart attack. Get immediate attention if a person develops signs and symptoms of a heart attack. These include pressure, fullness or a squeezing pain in the center of the chest lasting more than a few minutes; pain extending to the shoulder, arm, back, teeth or jaw; shortness of breath; and sweating or clammy skin.

Essential thrombocythemia can also cause bleeding with significant blood loss. A small number of people with essential thrombocythemia may later progress to these potentially life-threatening diseases –

  • Acute myelogenous leukemia – This is a type of white blood cell and bone marrow cancer that progresses rapidly.
  • Myelofibrosis – This progressive bone marrow disorder results in bone marrow scarring, leading to severe anemia and enlargement of the liver and spleen.

Treatment

Drug Therapy – The drugs most commonly used to treat ET are hydroxyurea (Hydrea), anagrelide (Agrylin) and interferon alfa (immediate-release preparations Intron A and Roferon-A and sustained-release preparations PEG-Intron and Pegasys).

  • Low-dose aspirin– may treat headache and burning pain in the skin.
  • Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea) or anagrelide (Agrylin)– reduces number of blood cells.
  • Aminocaproic acid– reduces bleeding. This treatment may be used before surgery to prevent bleeding as well

Plateletpheresis – During plateletpheresis, a special machine filters the excess platelets out of the blood. This is usually done only when the platelet count is very high, and the effect is temporary.

Alternative and Complementary Treatment

Multivitamins – A daily multivitamin, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium.

Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 – 2 capsules or 1 – 3 tablespoonfuls oil, 1 – 3 times daily, to help decrease inflammation and help with immunity.

Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus), 5 – 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day, when needed for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. Refrigerate your probiotic supplements for best results. People with weakened immune systems or those who take drugs to suppress the immune system should ask their doctor before taking probiotics.

Indirubin– In case reports, indirubin showed positive results in treating CML long-term. However, no scientific studies have been done on using indirubin for CML. Indirubin is from the indigo plant and is included in a traditional Chinese herb formula that has been used historically to treat CML.

Olive leaf for anticancer and immune effects. People with diabetes and high blood pressure should ask their doctor before taking olive leaf.

Turmericfor pain and inflammation. Do not use turmeric in case of gallbladder problems. Turmeric may increase the risk of bleeding.

Aromatherapy – Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils (fragrant substances distilled from plants) to alter mood or improve health. Essential oils are highly concentrated aromatic substances that can either be inhaled or applied as oils during therapeutic massage. For inhalation, steaming water, diffusers, or humidifiers are used to spread a combination of the steam and a few drops of the essential oil throughout the room. For skin application, essential oils are usually mixed with vegetable oil and massaged directly into the skin.

Art therapy uses creative activities to express emotions and provides a way for people to increase self-awareness, express unspoken concerns about their disease, or come to terms with emotional conflicts.

Meditation is a relaxation method that can be useful as a complementary therapy for treating chronic pain, insomnia, and improving the overall quality of life. There is no evidence that meditation is effective in directly treating cancer, however.

Acupuncture is a CAM therapy in which very thin needles are inserted through the skin at various locations called acupoints. In Chinese medicine, acupuncture is used as an anesthetic during surgery, relieve the symptoms of a variety of conditions, and is believed to have the power to cure certain diseases.

 

Reference –

https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/cancer/essential-thrombocythemia.html

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/kimmel_cancer_center/centers/bone_marrow_failure_disorders/essential_thrombocytosis.html

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/thrombocythemia/basics/complications/con-20034386

http://www.siloamhospitals.com/diseases-and-conditions/essential-thrombocythemia

https://www.uihealthcare.org/health-library/essential-thrombocythemia/

http://www.haematologica.org/content/93/3/331

http://ojrd.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1750-1172-2-3

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1516-84842013000400287&script=sci_arttext

http://patient.info/doctor/thrombocytosis

http://www.nature.com/leu/journal/v27/n8/full/leu201399a.html

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa043800

Posted in CANCER
February 3, 2017

DCIS is an early form of breast cancer, where the cancer cells have developed within the milk ducts but remain there ‘in situ’ having not yet developed the ability to spread outside the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue or to other parts of the body.

The structure of the female breast is important in understanding this cancer –

  • The interior of the female breast consists mostly of fatty and fibrous connective tissues.
  • It is divided into about 20 sections called lobes.
  • Each lobe is further subdivided into a collection of lobules, structures that contain small milk-producing glands.
  • These glands secrete milk into a complex system of tiny ducts. The ducts carry the milk through the breast and converge in a collecting chamber located just below the nipple.
  • Breast cancer is either noninvasive (referred to as in situ , confined to the site of origin) or invasive (spreading).

DCIS is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer. It may also be called intraductal carcinoma or non-invasive ductal carcinoma. Nearly all women diagnosed with this early stage of breast cancer can be successfully treated.

In situ, or “in place,” describes a cancer that has not moved out of the area of the body where it originally developed. With DCIS, the cancer cells are confined to milk ducts in the breast and have not spread into the fatty breast tissue or to any other part of the body (such as the lymph nodes). DCIS is often first detected by a mammogram (an x-ray examination of soft breast tissues used to identify lumps, cysts, tumors, and other abnormalities). DCIS may appear on a mammogram as tiny specks of calcium (called microcalcifications), generally too small to notice by physical examination.

f DCIS is left untreated, it may, over a period of years, spread into (invade) the breast tissue surrounding the ducts. It is then known as invasive breast cancer. DCIS is not harmful in itself, but it is usually treated to prevent it developing into an invasive breast cancer. Not every woman with DCIS will go on to develop breast cancer if it is left untreated, but it is not possible to predict reliably which women with DCIS will go on to develop invasive breast cancer. Doctors haven’t yet reached a consensus about the nature of this disease and its management, although research is underway to inform this.

Types of DCIS

DCIS may be classified based on what the cells look like when viewed under the microscope. There are 2 main subtypes of DCIS: comedo and non-comedo.

Comedo – The term comedo is used to describe the appearance of DCIS cells. When examined under a microscope, the cells have dead material (necrosis) that plugs the middle. This material can be squeezed or expressed out of the cells, like a blackhead (comedo) on the skin.

Non-comedo – Non-comedo DCIS grows more slowly than the comedo type of DCIS, and is less likely spread into the surrounding breast tissue. The most common non-comedo types of DCIS are –

  • Solid DCIS – cancer cells completely fill the affected breast ducts.
  • Cribiform DCIS – cancer cells do not completely fill the affected breast ducts.

Causes

Genetic Factor – It’s not clear what causes DCIS. DCIS forms when genetic mutations occur in the DNA of breast duct cells. The genetic mutations cause the cells to appear abnormal, but the cells don’t yet have the ability to break out of the breast duct.

Sometimes, DCIS is linked to an inherited breast cancer gene. This is more likely if there’s a strong history of breast cancer in the family. The chances of there being a breast cancer gene in the family increase if –

  • two or more close blood relatives on the same side of the family have had breast or ovarian cancer – close relatives are the parents, children, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles and grandparents
  • a close relative has had breast or ovarian cancer at a young age (under 40)
  • a close relative has had breast cancer in both breasts.

The genes most commonly linked to an increased risk of breast cancer in families are BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Hormone – Long, uninterrupted periods of exposure to the hormones oestrogen and progesterone can increase the risk of breast cancer. This may happen if –

  • When the period started at an early age
  • When the menopause starts late
  • When they don’t have children or have them later in life.

Other Conditions – The risk of developing DCIS is also higher when –

  • Breast cancer before
  • A type of non-cancerous (benign) breast disease called atypical ductal hyperplasia.

Lifestyle Factors – The following lifestyle factors may slightly increase the risk:

  • Drinking more than two units of alcohol every day over many years
  • Being overweight after the menopause.

Environmental Factors –

  • Exposure to Estrogen-like Industrial Chemicals – Chemicals with estrogen-like effects, called xenoestrogens, have been under suspicion for years. There has been particular concern with pesticides containing organochlorines (DDT and its metabolites, such as dieldrin) and pyrethroids (permethrin), but at this time evidence of any causal association is very weak.
  • Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol – Women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent miscarriage have a slightly increased risk for breast cancer. There may also be a slightly increased risk for their daughters (commonly called “DES daughters”), who were exposed to the drug when their mothers took it during pregnancy .
  • Radiation Exposure – Heavy exposure to radiation is a significant risk factor for breast cancer. Girls who receive high-dose radiation therapy for cancer face an increased risk for breast cancer in adulthood. Low-dose radiation exposure before age 20 may increase the risk for women with BRCA genetic mutations

Risk Factors

It’s not clear exactly what causes breast cancer but different things can increase a woman’s risk of developing it.

These include –

  • Increasing age – The risk of DCIS increases with age. It’s rare in women under the age of 35.
  • Previous breast cancer and some non-cancerous (benign) breast conditions – Having one of these can increase the risk.
  • Dense breast tissue – Women are slightly more likely to develop cancer when the breasts have more glandular and connective tissue, with very little fatty tissue.
  • Not having children – Women who haven’t had children are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than women who have.
  • Not breastfeeding – Women who have never breastfed are slightly more at risk than women who have breastfed for more than a year.
  • Early periods or a late menopause – Women whose periods started before they were 12 or who’ve had a late menopause (after the age of 50) are at a slightly higher risk.

Symptoms

Most people with DCIS have no symptoms. However, some people may notice a change in the breast such as a lump, discharge from the nipple or more rarely, a type of rash involving the nipple known as Paget’s disease of the breast.

However, DCIS can sometimes cause signs and symptoms, such as:

  • A breast lump
  • Bloody nipple discharge

Treatment

  • Lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy – This is the most common treatment for DCIS. Lumpectomy is sometimes called breast-conserving treatment because most of the breast is saved.
  • Mastectomy – Mastectomy, or removal of the breast, is recommended in some cases.
  • Lumpectomy alone
  • Hormonal therapy after surgery – These treatments, which block or lower the amount of estrogen in the body, are typically used if the DCIS tests positive for hormone receptors.

Alternative Treatment

Antineoplaston therapy – Uses amino acid derivatives to inhibit the growth of cancer.

Shark Cartilage therapy – Blocks the creation of new blood vessels which are required for cancer to grow   and thus starves the tumor.

Immune System Treatments/Immunologic Therapies – Bolsters the immune system to combat & destroy   cancer cells using a whole body program of detoxifying the body by diet, uncontaminated water and   vitamins.

Metabolic Therapy – This uses detox, colon cleansing, anti-cancer diets based on whole foods plus vitamins,   minerals and enzymes.

Nutritional Supplement Therapies –

  • Fats – Research is still mixed on the role that fats, and which specific types of fats, play in breast cancer risk and prevention. According to results from the Women’s Health Initiative study of dietary fat and breast cancer, there is no definite evidence that a low-fat diet will help prevent breast cancer. However, the study suggested that women who normally eat a very high-fat diet may benefit by reducing their fat intake.

 

  • Fruits and Vegetables – Fruits and vegetables are important sources of antioxidants, which may help protect against the tissue damage linked to increased cancer risk. Antioxidants include vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lycopene. Richly colored fruits and vegetables — not supplements — are the best sources for these nutrients. These fiber-rich foods are an essential part of a healthy diet. However, it is not clear whether fruits and vegetables can specifically prevent breast cancer development or recurrence.
  • Calcium and Vitamin D – Eating lots of foods rich in calcium and vitamin D (such as yogurt and milk) may modestly reduce the risk of breast cancer for premenopausal women. Low-fat or non-fat dairy products are a healthier choice than high-fat ones.
  • Soy – The American Cancer Society recommends that women with breast cancer eat only moderate amounts of soy foods and avoid taking dietary supplements that contain high amounts of isoflavones.

Detoxification Therapies – To remove toxic substances from the body. Toxic substances may be natural or synthetic, and occur in a wide variety of strengths.

Ozone and Oxygen Therapies – Cancer cells die when exposed to oxygen (cancer cells are anaerobic). There are many oxygen and ozone treatments, however, this article will discuss two of the best known and most effective “Stage IV” treatments – infusion bottle and ozone I.V.

Ozone therapy using an infusion bottle involves removing part of the blood from the body, saturating this blood with oxygen (i.e. ozone – O3), then putting this oxygen rich blood back into the body.

Lifestyle Therapies –

  • Making healthier choices
  • Eating better
  • Rest, fatigue, and exercise

Mind-Body Therapies – Counseling, bio-feedback, hypnosis, visualization, imagery, yoga,   massage therapy, meditation, relaxation techniques.

 

Reference –

http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/breast/breast-cancer/malignant-tumours/lcis/?region=sk

http://www.dcis.info/cause.html

http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/invasive-ductal-carcinoma

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dcis/basics/causes/con-20031842

http://www.macmillan.org.uk/information-and-support/breast-cancer/dcis/understanding-cancer/what-is-dcis.html#164146

http://www.nhs.uk/ipgmedia/National/Macmillan%20Cancer%20Support/assets/DuctalcarcinomainsituDCISUnderstandingDCISMCS6pages.pdf

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/21/health/breast-cancer-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-study.html

http://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/breast-cancer-ductal-carcinoma-situ

http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/2015/08/breast-cancer-study-encourages-reconsideration-of-dcis-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ/

http://www.imaginis.com/breast-cancer-diagnosis/ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis-3

Posted in CANCER