February 7, 2017

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection induced inflammation of a woman’s pelvic organs. The pelvic organs include the uterus (womb), fallopian tubes, ovaries, and cervix. It is a complication often caused by some STDs, like Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Other infections that are not sexually transmitted can also cause PID. Other bacteria that normally live in the vagina can also cause it, especially after a termination of pregnancy, or having intra uterine device (IUD/coil) fitted.

In PID, inflammation spreads from the vagina or cervix to the upper genital tract, with endometritis as an intermediate stage in the pathogenesis of disease. The hallmark of the diagnosis is pelvic diagnosis combined with inflammation of the lower genital tract; women with PID often have a very subtle symptoms and signs.

Pelvic inflammatory disease is common. More than one million U.S. women get PID every year. As a result of PID, more than 100,000 women become infertile each year. In addition, a large proportion of the 100,000 ectopic (tubal) pregnancies that occur each year can be linked to PID. The rate of infection is highest among teenagers.

PID can lead to serious, long-term problems –

  • Infertility—One in ten women with PID becomes infertile. PID can cause scarring of the fallopian tubes. This scarring can block the tubes and prevent an egg from being fertilized.
  • Ectopic pregnancy—Scarring from PID also can prevent a fertilized egg from moving into the uterus. Instead, it can begin to grow in the fallopian tube. The tube may rupture (break) and cause life-threatening bleeding into the abdomen and pelvis. Emergency surgery may be needed if the ectopic pregnancy is not diagnosed early.
  • Chronic pelvic pain—PID may lead to long-lasting pelvic pain.


In most cases the PID is caused by an infection which starts in the vagina and then makes it way to the cervix, and can move onto the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Often more than one type of bacteria may be causing the infection.

  • Chlamydia and Gonorrhea – Chlamydia is the most common cause (50% to 65% of cases in the UK), followed by gonorrhea (14% of cases in the UK). Sometimes PID may be caused by a combined Chlamydia-gonorrhea infection.
  • Childbirth, abortion or miscarriage – bacteria can get into the vagina during/after childbirth, abortion or miscarriage; it then multiplies and spreads, causing PID. The infection can spread more easily because the cervix may not have fully closed.
  • IUD – the intrauterine device, also known as a coil can increase the risk of infection which may lead to PID.
  • Endometrial biopsy – this procedure, during which a sample of tissue is taken for analysis, has a risk of infection and subsequent PID.
  • Appendicitis – there is a slight risk of developing PID if a woman has appendicitis.
  • Women who are sexually active and less than 25 years of age, have several sexual partners, or do not use barrier contraceptives have a higher risk of developing PID.


Some women with PID have only mild symptoms or have no symptoms at all. Because the symptoms can be vague, many cases are not recognized by women or their gynecologists or other health care professionals. Listed are the most common signs and symptoms of PID:

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • Pain in the lower abdomen (often a mild ache)
  • Pain in the upper right abdomen
  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding
  • Fever and chills
  • Painful urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Fatigue

Having one of these signs or symptoms does not mean that you have PID. It could be a sign of another serious problem, such as appendicitis or ectopic pregnancy. You should contact your gynecologist or other health care professional if you have any of these signs or symptoms.


PID can be treated. However, treatment of PID cannot reverse the scarring caused by the infection. The longer the infection goes untreated, the greater the risk for long-term problems, such as infertility.

  • Antibiotics – treatment for PID depends on the cause, but usually involves administering antibiotics. If the patient does not respond to antibiotic treatment within three days she should go back to her doctor or hospital, who may recommend intravenous antibiotic therapy or a change of medication.

As PID is frequently caused by more than just one type of bacteria at any one time, doctors tend to prescribe two antibiotics, which are taken together. As soon as the doctor knows which bacterium or bacteria are causing the disease, antibiotic therapy may become more targeted. Examples of antibiotics for PID include ofloxacin, metronidazole, ceftriaxone and doxycycline.

A course of antibiotics usually lasts 14 days. Patients with very severe symptoms will be hospitalized and receive their medication intravenously.

  • Surgery – the fallopian tubes may have scarring, or there may be abscesses that need to be drained. Surgery may be needed, either laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) or salpingectomy (removal of one or both fallopian tubes). Doctors are reluctant to remove both fallopian tubes, because the woman will not be able to get pregnant naturally.
  • Sexual partner – the doctor may advise the woman to have her sexual partner checked and if necessary, treated for an STD (sexually transmitted disease). If the partner has an STD there is a serious risk of recurrence.

Alternative Treatment

A comprehensive treatment plan for PID may include a range of alternative therapies.

  • Nutritional Supplement –
    • Multivitamin supplement – Intake of antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E, the B complex vitamins and trace minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc and selenium.
    • Omega 3 fatty acids – Intake of fish oil help reduce inflammation.
    • Probiotic – Probiotic yogurt that contains live cultures (good bacteria) is a great remedy to fight this bacterial infection. The good bacteria in this yogurt will help fight the bad bacteria and restore good bacteria in your vagina. It also helps maintain a healthy vaginal pH balance.
    • Vitamin C This vitamin is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system. It also helps with the formation of collagen, which is very important if you are suffering from a vaginal infection or PID. Collagen is a protein that is found in an abundant supply in the body. It maintains the integrity of skin, ligaments, tendons and bone. If the collagen matrix (which is the main component of connective tissue) is intact, infection is less likely to spread, and your organs are less likely to become scarred by the infection. The bacteria can spread through the connective tissue so having extra vitamin C at this time will help to strengthen the connective tissue, make it more resistant, and decrease the time it takes for your body to repair damaged tissue.
    • Beta-carotene – Beta-carotene is a type of vitamin A that is known to help your body produce collagen, and it also helps to keep your cartilage strong. It is important that you have adequate levels in your body to help stop the spread of infection. Beta-carotene is also a powerful antioxidant and is found in high concentrations in the ovaries. However, if there isn’t enough in the body, levels in the ovaries will be inadequate, and the ovaries will be less likely to be able to fight off attacking infectious agents. Studies show that adequate levels of beta-carotene can help to prevent excess cell damage. Beta-carotene is also vital for immune function and for the normal growth of the type of tissue found in the vagina.
    • Garlic – Often called ‘nature’s antibiotic’, garlic is very important while you are trying to fight off an infection because it has strong antibacterial properties. So not only can it help to deal with the present infection, but it can help to prevent a recurrence by making the body an inhospitable place for invaders
    • Herbs – Herbs are one way to strengthen and tone the body’s systems.
      • Green Tea
      • Cat’s claw
      • Bromelain
      • Reishi Mushroom
      • Olive Leaf
    • Acupuncture – Acupuncture may help enhance immune function and reduce pain and inflammation, especially in women with chronic PID. Acupuncturists often target their protocols to draining what they call “Damp Heat” from the area. This is done using both acupuncture and Chinese herbal preparations.


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February 7, 2017

Lichen sclerosus is a relatively uncommon condition in which thin white crinkly patches appear on the skin. It can appear anywhere, but is most troublesome in the genital areas. It may cause no symptoms but it is often very itchy and sometimes sore. Lichen sclerosus usually persists for years, and can cause permanent scarring.

LS usually occurs in postmenopausal women, although men, children, and premenopausal women may be affected. It can develop on any skin surface, but in women it most commonly occurs near the clitoris, on the labia (the inner and outer genital lips), and in the anal region (figure 1). In 15 to 20 percent of patients, LS lesions develop on other skin surfaces, such as the thighs, breasts, wrists, shoulders, neck, and even inside the mouth. In males, lichen sclerosus affects the foreskin and end of the penis. It is less common than in women, affecting around 1 in 100,000 men. It is more common in young boys and also adult men. Lichen sclerosus in males is sometimes also called balanitis xerotica obliterans.

It is not clear exactly how many people have LS. Estimates for LS involving the female genitals vary from 1 in 30 older adult women seen in general gynecology offices to 1 in 300 to 1000 patients referred to dermatologists.

Patients with lichen sclerosus have a slightly increased risk of vulvar cancer and should have a vulvar exam every six months to look for any skin changes that could be early cancer.


The cause of lichen sclerosus (LS) is not clear; healthcare providers suspect that a number of factors may be involved.

Genetic factors — LS seems to be more common in some families. People who are genetically predisposed to LS may develop symptoms after experiencing trauma, injury, or sexual abuse.

Disorders of the immune system — LS in females may be an autoimmune disorder, in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and injures the skin. People with LS are at greater risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, such as some types of thyroid disease, anemia, diabetes, alopecia areata, and vitiligo.

Infections — Researchers have tried to identify an infectious organism as a cause of LS, but no clear data have shown that there is an infectious source. LS is not contagious.


Symptoms include –

  • Chronic itchiness in the vulvar or anal area (which may go away and come back later)
  • Skin that looks pale, thicker or crinkled
  • Pain if the skin has split because of scratching.

Skin affected by lichen sclerosus can also scar and join up with nearby skin. This can change the structure of your vulva – for example, your labia minora may appear flattened, your clitoris can become buried under its hood and/or the opening of your vagina may shrink. This can sometimes affect your ability to have and/or enjoy sex.

Features of genital LS in women — Some women with genital LS feel dull, painful discomfort in the vulva, while other women have no symptoms. The most common symptoms include:

  • Vulvar itching – The most common symptom of LS is itching. It may be so severe that it interferes with sleep.
  • Anal itching, fissures, bleeding, and pain
  • Painful sexual intercourse (dyspareunia) – This can occur as a result of repeated cracking of the skin (fissuring) or from narrowing of the vaginal opening due to scarring.

Typically, women with genital LS have thin, white, wrinkled skin on the labia, often extending down and around the anus. Purple-colored areas of bruising may be seen. Cracks (also known as fissures) may form in the skin in the area around the anus, the labia, and the clitoris. Relatively minor rubbing or sex may lead to bleeding due to the fragility of the involved skin.

Features of genital LS in men — In men, LS may appear on the head of the penis. Men who develop LS are usually uncircumcised (they have not had the foreskin of the penis removed), and the foreskin can become tight, shrunken, and scarred over the head of the penis. Men with LS may also have problems pulling back the foreskin and may experience decreased sensation at the tip of the penis, painful erections, or problems with urination.

Features of LS in other areas — LS may also cause lesions to occur in areas outside the genitals, especially the upper body, breasts, and upper arms. These lesions tend to be white, flat or raised, and are not as itchy as the affected skin of the genitals and anus.


Topical steroids – Topical steroids are the most effective treatment for lichen sclerosus and can help restore normal texture to genital tissue and prevent further inflammation and changes in vulvar structures. High-potency steroids, applied once or twice a day, can be used safely in the genital area, with monthly examinations early in treatment to evaluate the patient’s response. As tissue begins to return to a more normal texture, the use of steroids may be decreased to two or three times a week. However, it is important to continue treatment as lichen sclerosus can recur. While treatment can prevent further changes in genital tissue, any scarring that has already occurred is not reversible without surgery.

Comfort measures during treatment – The use of moisturizers such as Vaseline or Crisco in addition to the steroids can be helpful in controlling symptoms, especially itching. Any irritation can cause a flare-up of lichen sclerosus. Bacterial or yeast infections need to be aggressively treated, and only mild, fragrance-free products should be used in the genital area. Many women use only water when bathing the vulva, to prevent irritation from soap products, and pat to dry. In women who are postmenopausal, adding estrogen locally in the vagina helps the skin to heal.

Surgery – This is to remove any cancerous or pre-cancerous skin. Surgery can also remove scarring or adhesions that cover the entrance to your vagina if these are affecting your ability to have or enjoy penetrative sex.

February 7, 2017

Kidney stones (calculi) are hardened mineral deposits that form in the kidney. They originate as microscopic particles or crystals and develop into stones over time. The medical term for this condition is nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease.

The job of the kidneys is to maintain the body’s balance of water, minerals and salts. Urine is the product of this filtering process. Under certain conditions, substances normally dissolved in urine, such as calcium, oxalate and phosphate, become too concentrated and can separate out as crystals. A kidney stone develops when these crystals attach to one another, accumulating into a small mass, or stone.

Kidney stones vary in size and shape. Stones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Some stones are even as big as golf balls. Stones may be smooth or jagged and are usually yellow or brown.

Kidney stones come in a variety of mineral types –

  • Calcium stones – Most kidney stones are composed of calcium and oxalate. Many people who form calcium containing stones have too much calcium in their urine, a condition known as hypercalciuria There are several reasons why hypercalciuria may occur. Some people absorb too much calcium from their intestines. Others absorb too much calcium from their bones. Still others have kidneys that do not correctly regulate the amount of calcium they release into their urine. There are some people who form calcium oxalate stones as a result of too much oxalate in the urine, a condition known as hypercalciuria In some cases, too much oxalate in the urine is a result of inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, or other times it may be a consequence of prior intestinal surgery. Calcium phosphate stones, another kind of calcium stone, are much less common than calcium oxalate stones. For some people, calcium phosphate stones form as a result of a medical condition known as renal tubular acidosis.
  • Struvite stones – Some patients form stones that are composed of a mixture of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate and calcium carbonate, which is known as struvite. These stones form as a result of infection with certain types of bacteria that can produce ammonia. Ammonia acts to raise the pH of urine, which makes it alkaline and promotes the formation of struvite.
  • Uric acid stones – Uric acid is produced when the body metabolizes protein. When the pH of urine drops below 5.5, urine becomes saturated with uric acid crystals, a condition known as hypercalciuria. When there is too much uric acid in the urine, stones can form. Uric acid stones are more common in people who consume large amounts of protein, such as that found in red meat or poultry. People with gout can also form uric acid stones.
  • Cystine stones – Cystine stones are rare, and they form only in persons with an inherited metabolic disorder that causes high levels of cystine in the urine, a condition known as cystinuria.

Stones may pass out of the kidney, become lodged in the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder (ureter), and cause severe, excrutiating pain that begins in the lower back and radiates to the groin. A lodged stone can block the flow of urine, causing pressure to build in the affected ureter and kidney. Increased pressure results in stretching and spasm, which cause the severe pain.

Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Each year in the United States, people make more than a million visits to health care providers and more than 300,000 people go to emergency rooms for kidney stone problems.


People develop kidney stones because –

  • Their small bowel absorbs too much calcium
  • Their diets are too high in calcium or another mineral
  • They have intestinal problems
  • Urinary tract infections
  • They may have inherited a certain disorder that makes their bodies more likely to form kidney stones

Other factors that increase the risk of kidney stones include –

  • Not drinking enough fluids (especially in the summer)
  • Not exercising enough, or a sedentary lifestyle
  • Hypertension, which makes people nearly 3 times more likely to develop kidney stones
  • Stress
  • Poor dietary habits
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Family history of kidney stones
  • Continual exposure to high temperatures, which makes people nearly 8 times more likely to form kidney stones
  • Other medical conditions, such as gout, chronic diarrhea, certain cancers, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Kidney Stones in Children – Kidney stones are found in children as young as 5 years. In fact, this problem is so common in children that some hospitals conduct ‘stone’ clinics for pediatric patients. The increase in the United States has been attributed to several factors, mostly related to food choices. The two most important reasons are not drinking enough fluids and eating foods that are high in salt. Kids should eat less salty potato chips and French fries. There are other salty foods: sandwich meats, canned soups, packaged meals, and even some sports drinks. Sodas and other sweetened beverages can also increase the risk of stones if they contain high fructose corn syrup.

Risk Factors

Anyone can have a kidney stone, but it may be more likely if they –

  • Are male
  • Are Caucasian
  • Are very overweight
  • Have had kidney infections
  • Have a family member with kidney stones
  • Have had kidney stones before
  • Eat a lot of animal protein (such as meat and eggs)
  • Do not drink enough liquids

Other conditions and medicines can also put people at greater risk for kidney stones.


The most common symptoms of kidney stones are blood in the urine or pain. Pain severity and location of pain might vary depending on such factors as stone location and degree of obstruction. Other symptoms include –

  • Feeling the need to urinate often
  • Inability to urinate (when a stone blocks the urinary tract)
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Cloudy, foul smelling urine, fever, chills, or weakness might be a sign of a serious infection.

Some kidney stones are called “silent stones” because they do not cause symptoms.


Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy – Ultrasound waves are used to break the kidney stone into smaller pieces, which can pass out with the urine. It is used for stones less than two centimetres in size.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy – A small incision is made in the back and then a special instrument is used to remove the kidney stone.

Endoscope Removal – An instrument is inserted into the urethra, passed into the bladder, then to where the stone is located. It allows the doctor to remove the stone or break it up so it can pass more easily.

Surgery – This requires an incision in the back to access the kidney and ureter to remove the stone.

Medications – The health care provider may prescribe certain medications to help prevent kidney stones based on the type of stone formed or conditions that make a person more prone to form stones –

  • hyperuricosuria—allopurinol (Zyloprim), which decreases uric acid in the blood and urine
  • hypercalciuria—diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide
  • hyperoxaluria—potassium citrate to raise the citrate and pH of urine
  • uric acid stones—allopurinol and potassium citrate
  • cystine stones—mercaptopropionyl glycine, which decreases cystine in the urine, and potassium citrate
  • struvite stones—antibiotics, which are bacteria-fighting medications, when needed to treat infections, or acetohydroxamic acid with long-term antibiotic medications to prevent infection

People with hyperparathyroidism sometimes develop calcium stones.

Self Help

  • Eat antioxidant-rich foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes), and vegetables (such as squash and bell peppers). Low antioxidant intake is associated with stone formation.
  • Eat more high fiber foods, including beans, oats, root vegetables (such as potatoes and yams), and psyllium seed.
  • Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
  • Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy is present) or beans for protein. High animal protein intake may cause you to excrete more calcium and uric acid, increasing the risk of stone formation.
  • Cut down on oxalate containing foods, such as spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, coffee, black tea, wheat bran, strawberries, and beans.
  • Include foods rich in magnesium and low in calcium, such as barley, bran, corn, rye, oats, soy, brown rice, avocado, banana, and potato.
  • Use healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil or coconut oil.
  • Reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids, found in such commercially-baked goods as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
  • Avoid coffee and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco.
  • Drink 6 to 8 glasses of filtered water daily. Some experts recommend doubling previous fluid intake after a stone diagnosis.
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week.
  • Reduce sodium and sugar intake, both of which are linked to increased risk of stone formation.

Alternative Treatment

Multivitamin – A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins and trace minerals, such as magnesium, zinc, and selenium.

Magnesium citrate used for symptoms of kidney stones. In sensitive people, magnesium can cause loose stools or a drop in blood pressure.

Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, helps to help reduce inflammation and promote general health. Cold-water fish, such as salmon or halibut, are good sources. Fish oil supplements can increase the effects of certain blood-thinning medications.

Vitamin B6 also commonly referred to as pyridoxine has been found to have exceptional curative success when it comes to curing kidney stones.

IP-6 (Inositol hexophosphonate) taken on an empty stomach, for kidney health.

N-acetyl cysteine, for antioxidant effects.

Probiotic supplement a day, for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. Refrigerate probiotic supplements for best results.

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) standardized extract, for antioxidant and immune effects.

Uva Ursi – On top of enabling to combat infections that are triggered with the onset of kidney stones, Uva Ursi also functions in assisting in pain reduction and cleansing of the urinary tract.

Dandelion Root – The dandelion root has been used for years to treat and manage the symptoms associated with kidney stones. In addition to relieving the pain triggered by kidney stones, organic dandelion root functions in cleansing the urinary tract.

Milk thistle for detoxification support.

Grapefruit seed extract for antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity.


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February 7, 2017

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to adequately remove waste from your blood and control the level of fluid in the body. Kidney failure can happen suddenly or gradually. People with kidney failure need dialysis or a transplant to stay alive.

The kidneys are 2 bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are found in the back on either side of the spine. Healthy kidneys clean waste products from the blood by making urine. They also balance the amount of certain elements in the blood (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium), and make hormones that control blood pressure and red blood cells.

If the kidney function fails, the waste products accumulate in the blood and the body. The term for this build-up is azotaemia. Very mild levels of azotaemia may give little or no symptoms, but if the kidney failure continues then symptoms will start to appear. If the kidney (or renal) failure is of sufficient degree to cause symptoms, it is called uraemia.


Kidney failure can happen rapidly – over days, weeks or months (acute renal failure) or slowly over a period of years (chronic renal failure).

Acute renal failure – This may occur with any serious illness or operation, particularly those complicated by severe infection. Acute kidney injury is common affecting about 20 per cent of those admitted to hospital with acute conditions. If the blood supply to the kidneys is reduced considerably from blood loss, a fall in blood pressure, severe dehydration or lack of salt, then the kidneys may be damaged. If this problem lasts long enough there can be permanent damage to the kidney tissue.

Sudden blockage to the drainage of urine from the kidney can cause damage. A kidney stone is a possible cause of this. Acute kidney damage can occur as a rare side effect of some medications and other rare conditions. Acute kidney damage can occur as a rare side effect of some medications and other rare conditions.

Chronic renal failure – There are many causes of chronic renal failure, including inflammatory conditions affecting the kidney tissue, as a complication of long-standing diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), chronic blockage to the drainage of the kidneys and as a result of certain inherited conditions such as polycystic kidney disease.

Often, the cause has occurred many years earlier and cannot be identified. Renal failure can happen rapidly – over days, weeks or months (acute renal failure) or slowly over a period of years (chronic renal failure).

Other conditions that affect the kidneys are –

  • Glomerulonephritis, a group of diseases that cause inflammation and damage to the kidney’s filtering units. These disorders are the third most common type of kidney disease.
  • Inherited diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease, which causes large cysts to form in the kidneys and damage the surrounding tissue.
  • Malformations that occur as a baby develops in its mother’s womb. For example, a narrowing may occur that prevents normal outflow of urine and causes urine to flow back up to the kidney. This causes infections and may damage the kidneys.
  • Lupus and other diseases that affect the body’s immune system.
  • Obstructions caused by problems like kidney stones, tumors or an enlarged prostate gland in men.
  • Repeated urinary infections.

Risk Factors

Conditions that can increase your risk of acute kidney failure include –

  • Being hospitalized, especially for a serious condition that requires intensive care
  • Advanced age
  • Blockages in the blood vessels in your arms or legs (peripheral artery disease)
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart failure
  • Kidney diseases
  • Liver diseases


Acute renal failure – Here the symptoms are largely those of the condition causing the acute kidney injury (AKI), such as: –

  • blood loss, causing a drop in blood pressure
  • vomiting and diarrhoea, causing dehydration
  • crush injuries. If large amounts of muscle are damaged there is a release of toxic protein substances that are harmful to the kidneys
  • sudden blockage of urine drainage.

Chronic Kidneyfailure – The damage to the kidneys is usually ‘silent’ and not noticed at an early stage. It may be discovered incidentally from blood or urine tests done for other reasons. High blood pressure very commonly occurs with it.

Symptoms are uncommon unless kidney failure is far advanced, when any of the following may be present –

  • tiredness
  • itching
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea and vomiting
  • breathlessness
  • fluid retention, shown as ankle swelling (oedema)


  • Fluid buildup – kidney failure may lead to a buildup of fluid in the lungs, which can cause shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain – If the lining that covers the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed, somemay experience chest pain.
  • Muscle weakness – When the body’s fluids and electrolytes — the body’s blood chemistry — are out of balance, muscle weakness can result. Elevated levels of potassium in the blood are particularly dangerous.
  • Permanent kidney damage – Occasionally, acute kidney failure causes permanent loss of kidney function, or end-stage renal disease. People with end-stage renal disease require either permanent dialysis — a mechanical filtration process used to remove toxins and wastes from the body — or a kidney transplant to survive.
  • Death – Acute kidney failure can lead to loss of kidney function and, ultimately, death. The risk of death is higher in people who had kidney problems before kidney failure.


Treatment options vary widely and depend on the cause of kidney failure, but most require a hospital stay. Options are sorted into two groups: treating the cause of renal failure versus replacing the renal function. They include –

  • Interventional radiology procedures such as ureteral stenting and nephrostomy: This procedure involves inserting either small stents into the ureter(s) or a tube connected to an external drainage bag. Both options are used to unblock the ureters in order to allow proper urine flow from the kidneys if this has been identified as the cause for the renal failure.
  • Surgical treatment such as a urinary stent or kidney stone removal.
  • Dialysis, including hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: These procedures remove wastes and excess fluid from the blood and therefore replace (some) renal functions. Kidney transplant is the most complete and effective way to replace kidney function but may not be suitable for all patients.

Alternative Treatment

Biodetoxification Prgramme – Safe, intensive treatment for the reduction of the body’s burden of toxic chemicals. Biodetoxification Program utilizes clinical procedures that safely reduce the body’s burden of toxic chemicals, including chemicals stored following occupational, accidental, and/or chronic airborne exposures. Chemicals bind to human tissues on the basis of their lipophilic properties — meaning literally “attracted to fats.” When our bodies absorb lipophilic toxins, they are deposited in the fat stores and released whenever those fatty tissues are broken down to provide energy. Thus, although a patient may initially be poisoned by an extrinsic (outside) source of toxicants, the patient may continue to be poisoned over a prolonged period of time by our own intrinsic (inside) body stores of those poisons.

Fish Oils – Fish oils affect the progression of CKD. In one meta-analysis some studies indicate a negative effect on the progression of CKD

Vitamin and mineral supplements – Replacement of certain vitamins and minerals that that the patient does not get in the diet or that are lost during dialysis.

Avoiding IV Dye – Avoiding X-ray tests that require IV dye (contrast material), such as an angiogram, an intravenous pyelogram (IVP), and some CT scans. IV dye can cause more kidney damage.

Diet – This may include – Avoid products with added salt, lower potassium foods, limited amount of protein in the diet.

Chinese Herbal Medicine – Acupuncture, Lei Gong Teng, Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy are the natural alternative treatments for kidney failure which is used externally.

Ayurveda – Gokshura and Mutrakrichantak Churna which contains herbs like Punarnava, Varuna, Shigru, Apamarg etc. maintain effective kidney functioning by promoting proper urination, reducing kidney discomforts and removing stones and helps to reduce accompanying fluid accumulation and kidney tissue inflammation.

Herbal treatment – Cornsilk, dandelion, astragalus, basil etc. helps to cleanse and strengthen the kidney.


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February 7, 2017

Interstitial cystitis (IC), is a chronic pain condition that affects the bladder. Many experts now call it bladder pain syndrome (BPS). It is a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder area. Along with this pain are lower urinary tract symptoms which have lasted for more than 6 weeks, without having an infection or other clear causes.

A normal urinary bladder should not cause pain. Pain, irritation or hypersensitivity in and around the bladder, with a frequent and often urgent need to urinate – whether sudden and acute or gradually developing and chronic – can have many different causes. It may be related to the urinary tract, the genital tract, the bowel, nervous system or muscular system. It may be due, for example, to bacterial, viral or fungal infections, infestations, stones, benign or malignant tumours, endometriosis, systemic autoimmune disease, drugs or chemicals, and including more recently ketamine abuse.

However, if a thorough investigation has revealed none of these disorders, there is another possibility, IC may be the cause. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, is a distressing, chronic bladder disorder of unknown cause, with persistent or recurrent symptoms of pain, irritation, pressure ordiscomfort related to the bladder and usually accompanied by a frequent and urgent need to urinate day and night. While the symptoms may resemble a urinary tract infection (cystitis), there is no infection to be seen in the urine and tests reveal no identifiable disorder that could account for the symptoms.

How the Urinary System Works ?

The bladder is relaxed, when it is not full of urine. When nerve signals in the brain let the bodies know that the bladder is getting full, the person feels the need to pass urine. If the bladder is working normally, the body can put off urination for some time. Once the body is ready to pass urine, the brain sends a signal to the bladder. Then the bladder muscles squeeze (or “contract”). This forces the urine out through the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the body. The urethra has muscles called sphincters. They help keep the urethra closed so urine doesn’t leak before the body is ready to go to the bathroom. These sphincters relax when the bladder contracts. IC/PBS is caused when this normal process is affected.

Who is at risk?

More than 1.3 million Americans haveIC/BPS, but studies suggest that,millions more may have symptoms ofIC/BPS. An estimated 3.3 million U.S. women, or 2.7 percent, who are 18 years of age or older have pelvic pain and other symptoms, such as urinary urgency or frequency, that are associated with IC/PBS.1 An estimated 1.6 million U.S. men, or 1.3 percent, who are 30 to 79 years old have persistent symptoms, such as pain with bladder filling or pain relieved by bladder emptying, that are associated with PBS. Most people with IC/BPS are diagnosed in middle age, but it may be diagnosed in teenagers and senior citizens as well.


Causes may include –

  • A defect in the bladder wall that allows substances in the urine to irritate the bladder.
  • A specific type of cell that releases histamine (chemical released during an allergic reaction) and other chemicals, which lead to symptoms of IC/BPS.
  • Something in the urine that damages the bladder.
  • Changes in the nerves that carry bladder sensations, making normal events, such as bladder filling, painful.
  • The body’s immune system attacks the bladder.

The causes of IC/BPS in some people may be different than the causes in other people with IC/BPS. Studies of people who have IC/BPS suggest that it sometimes develops after an injury to the bladder, such as an infection. Genes also may play a role in some forms of IC/BPS. In some cases, IC/BPS affects both a mother and daughter or sisters. Still, IC/BPS does not commonly run in families.

Many women with IC/PBS have other conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Scientists believe IC/PBS may be a bladder manifestation of a more general condition that causes inflammation in various organs and parts of the body.

IC/BPS can get in the way of the affected person’s social life, exercise and sleep, and can cause a great deal of distress. Without treatment, IC/BPS symptoms make it hard to get through the day or even be able to work. IC/BPS may affect the relationship with his/her spouse and family. It can also rob a person of a good night’s sleep. Too little sleep will leave the patient tired and unhappy.

  • Pain –
    • Pain, irritation, pressure, discomfort or other unpleasant sensation that may worsen as the bladder fills;
    • Urinating often alleviates the pain and may give a temporary sense of relief;
    • Suprapubic pain or discomfort, pelvic pain (lower abdominal pain), sometimes extending to the lower
    • Part of the back, the groin and thighs;
    • In women there may be pain in the vagina and vulva;
    • In men, pain in the penis, testicles, scrotum and perineum;
    • Both men and women may have pain in the urethra and rectum;
    • Pain with sexual intercourse in both men and women (dyspareunia); pain on ejaculation in men;
    • Pain may worsen or be triggered by specific foods or drinks or even medication;
    • A frequent need to urinate (frequency), including at night (night-time frequency or nocturia); an often urgent or overwhelming need to urinate (urgency).


  • Urinary Frequency – Means that a person needs to urinate more frequently than normal during the daytime and at night.People with severe interstitial cystitis may urinate as often as 60 times a day.Frequency is by no means always related to bladder size. While some patients have a type of IC witha shrunken bladder with a scarred, stiff wall (fibrosis) and a small capacity under anaesthesia, other IC/BPS patients with a normal-sized bladder may nevertheless have severe frequency due to hypersensitivity on filling. A typical feature of IC/BPS is the need to empty the bladder several or multiple times during the night. The amount of urine passed may be small, even just a few drops.
  • Urinary urgency – In IC/BPS is an urgent or overwhelming need to empty the bladder due to increasingpain or discomfort or other unpleasant sensation that becomes impossible to tolerate any longer, and may in some patients be accompanied by a feeling of malaise and/or nausea. Some patients find that having to postpone urination leads to retention or difficulty in getting the flow started. The nature and cause(s) of this urgency sensation in IC/BPS patients are still not fully understood.

IC/PBS & Pregnancy – IC/BPS is not thought to affect fertility or the health of the unborn baby. Some women find that their IC/BPS symptoms get better during pregnancy. Others find their symptoms get worse. If you are thinking about becoming pregnant, talk to your doctor about your IC/BPS and any medicines you might be using to treat IC/BPS or other conditions. Some medicines and treatments are not safe to use during pregnancy.


Conventional Treatment

Most conventional treatments are aimed at symptom control. IC/BPS treatment is often done in phases with constant monitoring of your pain and quality of life. It is important to talk to your health care provider about how your treatments are working so that together you can find the best treatment option for you.

The following are the different phases of IC/BPS treatment:

  • Lifestyle changes – Lifestyle changes, known as “behavioral therapy,” are often the first treatments used to manage IC/BPS. This includes – Manipulative Physical therapy, Limiting Stress, Limiting certain Foods & Drinks. There is evidence that physical therapy exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles do not improve symptoms, and often make them worse, so activities such as Kegel exercises are not recommended for patients with IC/BPS.
  • Prescription Drugs -There are many types of oral drugs, and the side effects range from drowsiness to upset stomach. Intravesical prescription drugs are placed directly into the bladder with a catheter. This includes –
    • Oral PentosanPolysulphate – It builds and restores the protective coating of the bladder tissue. It may also help by decreasing swelling or by other actions. Possible side effects are not common, but may include nausea, diarrhea and gastric distress.
    • DimethylSulfoxide (DMSo) – This blocks swelling, decrease pain sensation and remove a type of toxin called “free radicals” that can damage tissue.
    • Hydroxyzine -Hydroxyzine is an antihistamine. It is thought that some patients with IC/BPS have too much histamine in the bladder that leads to pain and other symptoms. An antihistamine may be helpful in treating IC/BPS. The main side effect is drowsiness.
    • Amitriptyline – This is described as an antidepressant, but it actually has many effects that may improve IC/BPS. It has antihistamine effects, decreases bladder spasms, and slows the nerves that carry pain messages. Amitriptyline is widely used for other types of chronic pain such as cancer and nerve damage. The most common side effects are drowsiness, constipation and increased appetite.
    • Heparin -Heparin is similar to pentosanpolysulfate and probably helps the bladder by similar mechanisms. Heparin must be placed into the bladder with a catheter. Complications are rare because the heparin stays in the bladder only and does not usually affect the rest of the body.
  • Nerve Stimulation – This includes
    • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
    • Sacral nerve stimulation
  • Sacral nerve stimulation – Bladder distention is the stretching of the bladder with water or gas. The procedure may be repeated as a treatment if the response is long lasting.

Alternative Treatment

Nutritional Supplement

  • Quercetin – It is a bioflavonoid that may have anti-inflammatory properties. A small double-blind placebo-controlled trial found that a supplement containing quercetin reduced symptoms of interstitial cystitis.
  • Arginine –The amino acid arginine helps the body make nitric oxide, a substance that relaxes smooth muscles like those found in the bladder. Based on this mechanism, arginine has been proposed as a treatment for IC.
  • Glycosaminoglycans –There is some evidence that in interstitial cystitis the surface layer of the bladder is deficient in protective natural substances called glycosaminoglycans.This in turn might allow the bladder to become inflamed; it might also initiate autoimmune reactions.
  • Calcium citrate alkalinizes the urine, which decreases irritation to the bladder.
  • Bromelain provides anti-inflammatory action.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids – This is known for its ability to decrease systemic inflammation in the tissue and membranes.
  • Probiotics also help restore normal flora and lessen inflammation, plus help to combat systemic yeast triggers.
  • Estrogen plays a significant role in inflammation, and during times of great hormonal imbalances your body could be more susceptible to inflammation that can lead to interstitial cystitis.
  • Calcium-Magnesium with Vitamin D


  • Gotu kola – It enhances the integrity of connective tissue by stimulating production of glycosaminoglycans, which are an integral component of the protective mucous layer in the bladder.
  • Buchu (Barosmabetulina)—A soothing diuretic and antiseptic for the urinary system.
  • Cleavers (Galiumaparine)—Traditionally used as a urinary tract tonic.
  • Corn silk (Zea mays)—Has soothing and diuretic properties.
  • Horsetail (Equisetum arvense)—An astringent and mild diuretic with tissue-healing properties.
  • Marshmallow root (Althea officinalis)—Has soothing demulcent properties. It is best taken as a cold infusion; soak the herb in cold water for several hours, strain, and drink.
  • Usnea(Usneabarbata)—Has soothing and antiseptic properties.
  • Supplemental greens – alfalfa, green barley, spirulina, kelp, chlorella, wheat grass, chlorophyll and blue-green algae. These nutrient packed greens are an excellent way to supplement a diet low in fresh greens.











February 7, 2017

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. About 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV. About 14 million people become newly infected each year. HPV is so common that most sexually active men and women will get at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives.

They can affect the skin and the moist membranes that line parts of the body, including

  • The lining of the mouth and throat
  • The vulva
  • The cervix
  • The vagina
  • The anus

There are over 100 types of human papillomavirus (HPV), each one having a number to identify it, for example HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16 and HPV-18. Human papillomaviruses are viruses that can infect many parts of the body. Some types of HPV are sexually transmitted and can cause warts or other consequences such as cancer (e.g., cervical, penile and anal). The types of HPV that infect the anal and genital (anogenital) areas are not the same as the ones that infect other areas of the body such as the fingers, hands and face. The types which cause anogenital warts do not usually cause cancer.

The various types of HPV are often classified into low and high risk according to their association with cancer. The “low-risk” types are rarely associated with cancer. The “high-risk” types are more likely to lead to the development of cancer. Although certain types of HPV are associated with cancer, the development of HPV related cancer is considered a rare event.

Most high-risk HPV infections occur without any symptoms, go away within 1 to 2 years, and do not cause cancer. Some HPV infections, however, can persist for many years. Persistent infections with high-risk HPV types can lead to cell changes that, if untreated, may progress to cancer.


The HPV virus is spread through direct skin to skin contact with an infected person, most commonly through sexual contact.

The virus can be passed from person to person even if there are no visible warts. Warts that occur elsewhere on the body are caused by different types of HPV and contact does not seem to cause genital warts. If visible warts are treated as soon as they appear, the spread of HPV is reduced. The virus can live in the skin for many years and during that time can be passed on through sexual contact. Even though the warts are gone, HPV can still be living in the genital skin and it is still possible to transmit the virus to the partner. This explains why genital HPV infection spreads easily among sexually active people. It is unknown how long a person with HPV infection remains infectious or can pass the infection on to a sexual partner. Spermicidal foams, creams and gels have not been shown to have any effect against HPV.

In men, genital warts most often appear on the penis, on the scrotum, in or around the anus, or on the groin. For men, HPV infection — including those that can cause cellular changes — cause no symptoms, so diagnosing HPV in men is difficult. The diagnosis of HPV in men is made when external genital warts are seen. Sometimes, a health care provider can see small warts that might have otherwise gone unnoticed. In general, HPV infection does not place a man at a much higher risk for health problems. However, HPV prevention is still important for men, as the virus has been linked to uncommon cancers such as penile, anal, and head and neck.

HPV may also be passed from mother to baby during labour and birth.

Risk Factors

There are certain risk factors that place a person at a higher risk of contracting an HPV virus including –

  • Age – common warts occur most commonly in children, genital warts occur most commonly in adolescents and young adults, and plantar warts occur most commonly in adults but initially occur in adolescents and young adults
  • A higher number of intimate partners
  • Having sexual intercourse with a partner who has had a higher number of intimate partners
  • Those who are immunocompromised
  • Having areas of damaged skin
  • Personal contact with warts or surfaces where HPV exposure has occurred.

HPV and Cancers

High-risk HPVs cause several types of cancer.

  • Cervical cancer – Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV, and just two HPV types, 16 and 18, are responsible for about 70 percent of all cases.
  • Anal cancer – About 95 percent of anal cancers are caused by HPV. Most of these are caused by HPV type 16.
  • Oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the middle part of the throat, including the soft palate, the base of the tongue, and the tonsils) – About 70 percent of oropharyngeal cancers are caused by HPV. In the United States, more than half of cancers diagnosed in the oropharynx are linked to HPV type 16.
  • Rarer cancers – HPV causes about 65 percent of vaginal cancers, 50 percent of vulvar cancers, and 35 percent of penile cancers. Most of these are caused by HPV type 16.

High-risk HPV types cause approximately 5 percent of all cancers worldwide. In the United States, high-risk HPV types cause approximately 3 percent of all cancer cases among women and 2 percent of all cancer cases among men.


Many people who have HPV have no symptoms of the infection. Anogenital warts (also called Condylomata) are one sign of HPV infection. They may look like a small cauliflower or may be flat. Many people with HPV will have no obvious signs of infection because the warts may be inside the body or if on the skin, too small to be seen.

In women, warts may appear on the vulva, thigh, anus, rectum, or in the vagina or urethra with the cervix being a common HPV infection site. During pregnancy, the number and size of warts can increase, but usually decrease after delivery. With an inactive infection, the cells of the cervix appear normal under a microscope during a Pap test and the woman may never know she was infected. With an active infection, the cervical cells undergo a change. An active infection can follow one of two courses –

  • The abnormal cells become normal again and the infection is inactive or cleared from the body by the immune system. However, it is possible that an inactive infection can become active again, for reasons that aren’t clearly understood.
  • The abnormal cells slowly progress to cervical cancer.

In men, the warts may appear on the penis, scrotum, thigh, anus, rectum, or in the urethra.


  • Oral and upper respiratory lesions – Some HPV infections may cause lesions to form on the tongue, tonsils, soft palate, or within the larynx and nose.
  • Cancer – Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by two specific varieties of HPV. These two strains may also contribute to cancers of the genitals, anus, mouth and upper respiratory tract.


There is no cure for the virus itself, but many HPV infections go away on their own. In fact, about 70 percent to 90 percent of cases of HPV infection are cleared from the body by the immune system.

When treatment is needed, the goal is to relieve symptoms by removing any visible warts and abnormal cells in the cervix. Treatments might include –

  • Cryosurgery — freezing the warts off with liquid nitrogen
  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) — using a special wire loop to remove the abnormal cells
  • Electrocautery — burning off the warts with an electrical current
  • Laser therapy — using an intense light to destroy the warts and any abnormal cells
  • Prescription cream — applying medicated cream directly to the warts (Do not use over-the-counter wart treatments on the genital area.)

In some cases, no treatment is needed. However, the doctor will closely watch any cell changes during the regular screening appointments.

Only a small number of women infected with HPV will develop cellular changes that need to be treated.

Self Help

Using condoms every time people have sex can help reduce the risk of HPV. Everyone should be aware, however, that condoms do not cover all of the genital skin, so they are not 100 percent effective in protecting against the spread of HPV. A person with genital warts should not have sex until the warts are removed. This might help reduce the risk of spreading HPV.

Here are some other ways of reducing the risk of HPV –

  • Women should have regular pelvic exams and Pap tests to look for abnormal changes in the cervix that might be pre-cancer.
  • Men and women should stop having sexual contact as soon as they know or think they have genital warts, and they should seek treatment immediately.
  • Get vaccinated with one of the three available HPV vaccines. Gardasil® and Gardasil9® protect against the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. They are approved for girls and women ages 9 to 26, as well as for boys and men ages 9-26 to protect against genital warts. The third vaccine, called Cervarix®, is approved for women only to protect against cervical cancer (does not protect against several of the HPV strains that cause warts).

It is best to get the vaccine before the start of sexual activity. The vaccine consists of a series of three shots, with the second shot coming two months after the first, and the third coming six months after the first. If people already have HPV, the vaccine does not treat or cure, but can still help protect against other types of HPV infections.

Alternative Treatment

Beta-carotene converted to Vitamin A when consumed empowers the body to clear HPV.

Folic acid is especially useful in the treatment of mild cervical dysplasia (CIN I). One study shows that high folate blood levels are linked to the prevention of mild cervical dysplasia and high-risk HPV 16.

Vitamin C, the ultimate immune booster, will exponentially increase your chances of curing HPV in a timely manner. One study showed that women with high intake of vitamin C had a reduction in the risk of cervical dysplasia.

Antioxidants can help cure various strains of HPV including ones that cause the development of warts. Because antioxidants fight free radicals, cancer-causing agents in the body, it’s vital that people consume foods high in antioxidants.

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is present in all members of the cruciferous vegetable family including cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and kale. Studies indicate I3C has the potential to prevent and even treat a number of common cancers, especially those that are estrogen related

Echinacea is a natural cure for hpv virus, also called as purple coneflower. This cure is a perennial prairie herb that can be used in the form of tea and tincture that provides outstanding results against warts. It has polysaccharides and phytosterols that improve white blood cells (WBC) to destroy this virus.

Goldenseal is a natural cure for hpv virus that is used along with Echinacea in removing the warts. This cure has the same effect in stimulating the immune system by increasing the white blood cells count. Goldenseal produces twisted stem called as rhizome used as a natural remedy. It has a substance, berberine that has the composition to kill the strains of microorganisms.

Curcurmin – The purified form of turmeric, Curcurmin is an anti-oxidant that acts effectively against hpv virus and protects the body’s DNA cells. It also has great effect in curing different forms of cervical cancer.

Pau d’Arco – The liquid extract of Pau d’Arco has the composition to fight against the action of hpv virus. This natural cure for hpv virus in the liquid extract form can be applied on the warts infected region and has the ability to shrink and make them to disappear.

Thuja leaf and its oil, has the anti-viral remedy to treat against genital warts caused by hpv virus infection. It stimulates the cells in the immune systems that are needed to kill and search the virus infected cells.

Astragalus acts as immune stimulator and anti-viral agent to fight against hpv virus. It initiates the p-53 gene that in turn invokes the production of interleukin-2. This substance kills the hpv virus and improves immunity against cancer.

Tea tree oil, a natural cure for hpv virus has the anti-viral and anti-microbial ability to reduce warts enormously. It is an internal and topical disinfectant that increases the immunity level in the body.

Garlic has a strong anti-microbial tendency and contains a substance called as Allicin. This content has the ability to destroy pathogens, which can be applied directly on to genital warts providing great relief.

Mushrooms such as Reishi and Shitake, is the natural cure for hpv virus infection. It has anti-viral activity to kill the effects of this virus that provides relief from genital warts.


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February 7, 2017

Herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Genital herpes is usually spread by having vaginal, oral, or anal sex. One in five women ages 14 to 49 has genital herpes.

There are two types of HSV –

  • HSV-1 most often causes infections of the mouth and lips, called cold sores or “fever blisters.” Symptoms are often milder than genital herpes, and you may get fewer outbreaks.2 It can spread to the genital area during oral sex and cause genital herpes. If HSV-1 spreads to the genital area, it is still HSV-1.
  • HSV-2 is the most common cause of genital herpes. It is spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. HSV-2 can spread to the mouth during oral sex. If HSV-2 spreads to the mouth or lips during oral sex, it is still HSV-2.

Genital herpes is characterized by recurrent clusters of vesicles and lesions at the genital areas or below the waist. The female genital areas are on or near the pubis, vulva, labia, clitoris, buttocks or rectum. The areas for male genital herpes include on or around the penis, the inner thigh, buttocks, or rectum. Proctitis, or inflammation of the rectum, can be due to HSV.

The herpes simplex virus (HSV) is easily human transmissible. It is passed from one person to another by close, direct contact. The most common mode of transmission is through vaginal, anal or oral sex. When somebody becomes infected with HSV, it will generally remain dormant.

Most people who are infected with HSV do not know it because their symptoms are so slight – many people have no discernible symptoms.


HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in and released from the sores that the viruses cause, but they also are released between outbreaks from skin that does not appear to be broken or to have a sore.

Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection, but you can get herpes from kissing. Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know that he or she is infected.

HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes infections of the mouth and lips – so-called “fever blisters.” HSV-1 infection of the genitals can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection. Genital HSV-1 outbreaks recur less regularly than genital HSV-2 outbreaks.

The following can be ways of becoming infected –

  • Having unprotected vaginal or anal sex
  • Having oral sex with a person who gets cold sores
  • Sharing sex toys
  • Having genital contact with an infected person.

Infection of a baby can occur during vaginal delivery if the mother has genital herpes, particularly if it is the first attack. Babies infected in this way can become severely ill. The obstetrician and midwife should be told of past genital herpes infections so the risk of this complication can be minimised.

Risk Factors

People are at risk if they –

Are a woman – Women are more likely to have genital herpes than are men. The virus is sexually transmitted more easily from men to women than it is from women to men.

Have multiple sexual partners – Each additional sexual partner raises the risk of being exposed to the virus that causes genital herpes.


Many people with genital herpes never have sores. Or they have very mild symptoms that go unnoticed or are mistaken for insect bites or another skin condition.

If signs and symptoms do occur during the first outbreak, they can be severe. This first outbreak most often happens within 2 days to 2 weeks of being infected.

General symptoms may include –

  • Decreased appetite
  • Fever
  • General sick feeling (malaise)
  • Muscle aches in the lower back, buttocks, thighs, or knees
  • Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the groin

Genital symptoms include small, painful blisters filled with clear or straw-colored fluid. Areas where the sores may found include –

  • Outer vaginal lips (labia), vagina, cervix, around the anus, and on the thighs or buttocks (in women)
  • Penis, scrotum, around the anus, on the thighs or buttocks (in men)
  • Tongue, mouth, eyes, gums, lips, fingers, and other parts of the body (in both genders)

Before the blisters appear, there may be tingling, burning, itching, or pain at the site where the blisters will appear. When the blisters break, they leave shallow ulcers that are very painful. These ulcers crust over and heal in 7 to 14 days or more.

Other symptoms may include-

  • Painful urination
  • Vaginal discharge (in women) or inability to empty the bladder that requires a urinary catheter

A second outbreak can appear weeks or months later. It is usually less severe and it goes away sooner than the first outbreak. Over time, the number of outbreaks may decrease.


Other sexually transmitted infections – Having genital sores increases the risk of transmitting or contracting other sexually transmitted infections, including AIDS.

Newborn infection – Babies born to infected mothers can be exposed to the virus during the birthing process. This may result in brain damage, blindness or death for the newborn.

Bladder problems – In some cases, the sores associated with genital herpes can cause inflammation around the tube that delivers urine from the bladder to the outside world (urethra). The swelling can close the urethra for several days, requiring the insertion of a catheter to drain the bladder.

Meningitis – In rare instances, HSV infection leads to inflammation of the membranes and cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Rectal inflammation (proctitis) – Genital herpes can lead to inflammation of the lining of the rectum, particularly in men who have sex with men.


Medications – Antiviral medication, such as acyclovir or valcyclovir, can lessen the severity of an outbreak, lower the chances of passing the virus to a partner and shorten the time it takes for a sore to heal. Medication works best if it is started as soon as possible after an outbreak begins.

As recurrent outbreaks are milder, treatment is not usually necessary.

Episodic treatment and suppressive treatment

  • Episodic treatment – This is generally for patients who have less than six recurrences in one year. A five-day course of antivirals is prescribed each time symptoms appear.
  • Suppressive treatment – If a patient has more than six recurrences in a year, or if symptoms are very severe, antiviral treatment may last longer. The aim here is to prevent further recurrences. Some patients may have to take acyclovir twice daily for several months. Although suppressive treatment significantly reduces the risk of passing HSV to a partner, there is still a risk.

Pregnant women may be treated for herpes during the last month of pregnancy to reduce the chance of having an outbreak at the time of delivery. If there is an outbreak around the time of delivery, a C-section will be recommended to reduce the chance of infecting the baby.

Tenofovir vaginal gel protects women from herpes simplex – tenofovir, an anti-HIV mediation, when formulated as a vaginal gel, was found to reduce herpes simplex infection risk, scientists from the USA, Belgium and Italy reported in the journal Cell Host & Microbe. They explained that when in the vaginal gel formulation, higher concentrations of the drug reach the vaginal cells compared to tenofovir’s orally administered equivalent.

To reduce the risk of developing or passing on genital herpes:

  • Use condoms when having sex – although condoms are recommended, they provide a “modest” reduction in the risk of acquiring HSV-2, compared to other STIs, researchers reported in Archives of Internal Medicine (July 13th, 2009 issue).
  • Do not have sex while symptoms are present (genital, anal, or skin-to-skin)
  • Do not kiss when there is a cold sore around the mouth
  • Do not have many sexual partners
  • Male circumcision cuts risk of genital herpes infection, as well as HPV

Some people find that stress, being tired, illness, friction against the skin, or sunbathing may trigger recurrences of symptoms. Avoiding such triggers, if they can be identified, may help reduce the number of recurrences.

Alternative Treatment

Many herbal and dietary supplement products claim to help fight herpes infection by boosting the immune system. There has been little research on these products, and little evidence to show that they really work. Some are capsules taken by mouth. Others come in the form of ointment that is applied to the skin. Popular herbal and supplement remedies for herpes simplex include –

  • Echinacea ( Echinacea purpurea )
  • Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus )
  • Aloe ( Aloe vera )
  • Bee products that contain propolis, a tree resin collected by bees
  • Lysine
  • Zinc


  • Lysine – Studies suggest that lysine may help reduce the number of recurring outbreaks of cold sores. A few studies also suggest that lysine may help shorten the length of an outbreak. Lysine can increase the amount of calcium that the body absorbs.
  • Propolis – A resin made by bees, propolis is loaded with antioxidants that help fight infection and boost immune function. Studies show that, it can stop HSV-1 and HSV-2 from reproducing.
  • Zinc – Zinc is effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2. In one small study, people who applied zinc oxide cream to cold sores saw them heal faster than those who applied a placebo cream.
  • Vitamin E – Topical application of vitamin E helps to relief pain and aid the healing of oral herpetic lesions.
  • Vitamin C – Ascorbic acid has been shown to inactivate a wide range of viruses in vitro, including Herpes simplex virus, and to enhance immune function.
  • Lithium – Preliminary evidence suggests that oral or topical lithium is beneficial. Lithium inhibited the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro at concentrations that did not inhibit host cell replication.


  • Lemon balm – Several studies suggest that topical ointments containing lemon balm may help heal cold sores.
  • Aloe (Aloe vera) – Preliminary evidence suggests that aloe gel used topically may improve the symptoms of genital herpes in men.
  • Rhubarb cream (Rheum palmatum) – A topical cream made from sage (Salvia officinalis) and rhubarb was as effective as Zovirax in healing cold sores.
  • Eleutherococcus or Siberian ginseng – Siberian ginseng reduced the frequency, severity, and duration of outbreaks. People with high blood pressure, certain heart conditions; diabetes; obstructive sleep apnea; hormone-related cancers such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or uterine cancer; narcolepsy (frequent day time sleeping); mania; or who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Siberian ginseng.
  • Peppermint oil (Mentha x piperita) – Peppermint oil helps to stop a number of viruses from reproducing, including herpes.
  • Tea Tree Oil – This substance has been hailed as a veritable cure-all when it comes to any ailment that involves open sores.
  • Samento extract – This substance is available in both pill and liquid form. It is extracted from a plant found in many rain forests around the world and is thought to be a major immune system booster. Most herpes outbreaks happen when the immune system is at a low point and the virus is able to cause an outbreak.

Mind Body Treatment

Having genital herpes can impact your social and emotional life. In fact, if you have herpes, it is common to feel depressed, angry, and even guilty. Worrying about possible rejection by someone with whom a person wants to be intimate is also common. Joining a support group where members share experiences and problems can help relieve the stresses associated with having genital herpes. This may also include –

  • Relaxation Techniques
  • Self Hypnosis
  • Emotional Support

There are a number of natural options available for the prevention and treatment of Herpes simplex infections. These medications can be used to alleviate the symptoms of an outbreak and shorten its course or to suppress recurrences, reduce the number outbreaks and prevent spreading the disease.


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February 7, 2017

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a kidney disease that involves the formation of scar tissue in the glomeruli. “Sclerosis” meaning scarring and “glomerulo-” which are tiny filters that filter circulating blood producing urine as an end-product. When these filters are damaged they become scarred and are no longer able to filter blood appropriately. “Focal” meaning that only some of the filters are damaged while some are normal and “segmental” is included because often only parts of the filters are scarred.

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, the bladder and urethra. The kidneys filter the blood to remove waste products and produce urine. The urine flows from the kidneys down through the ureters to the bladder, where it is stored until we go to the toilet. It passes through another tube called the urethra to the outside when urinating (peeing).

The kidneys contain millions of tiny filtering units called glomeruli. As blood passes through the tubes in the glomerulus, waste products pass through the walls of the tubes to form urine. Blood cells and other things such as protein cannot pass through the walls because they are too big. When someone has focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), some of the glomeruli are damaged and become scarred. This stops them working properly, so that protein can pass through the walls of the glomerulus and into the urine. This means that the child develops nephrotic syndrome.

Types of FSGS

  • Primary FSGS – A significant number of people diagnosed with FSGS have no known cause for their condition. This is called primary (idiopathic) FSGS.
  • Secondary FSGS – This condition is brought on by any of several factors — for example, infection, drug toxicity, diseases such as diabetes or sickle cell disease, significant obesity, use of certain medications such as anabolic steroids, or other types of kidney diseases. Controlling or treating the underlying cause often improves kidney function.
  • Genetic (also called familial) FSGS – This rare form of FSGS is caused by genetic mutations. It’s suspected when several members of a family show signs of FSGS. Familial FSGS can also occur when neither parent has the disease, but each carries one copy of an abnormal gene that can be passed on to the next generation. Therefore, even if the disease doesn’t show up in other family members, it’s possible that the disease may be inherited.

More than 5400 patients are diagnosed with FSGS every year, however, this is considered an underestimate because –

  • a limited number of biopsies are performed
  • the number of FSGS cases are rising more than any other cause of Nephrotic Syndrome

Glomerulosclerosis affects both children and adults. Males are affected slightly more often than females, and it occurs more frequently in African Americans.


FSGS most frequently occurs without a cause. In such cases it is called idiopathic or primary FSGS. Sometimes, though, FSGS does have a known cause, and these can include –

  • HIV infection
  • Obesity
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Birth defects of the kidneys
  • Heroin or other drug use
  • Genetic causes (in rare cases)

Besides FSGS, glomerulosclerosis can be caused by these diseases –

  • Diabetes
  • Lupus
  • HIV infection
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Hypertension

Conditions that damage the kidneys can also lead to glomerulosclerosis. These include –

  • Glomerulonephritis, which causes the glomeruli to become inflamed
  • Reflux nephropathy, in which urine flows back into the kidney

Chemicals and medicines that harm the kidneys can also cause glomerulosclerosis.

  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as ibuprofen and aspirin.
  • Gold injections, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Lithium, for the treatment of depression.
  • Penicillamine, for the treatment of arthritis.


It is possible for there to be no signs or symptoms when in the early stages of FSGS. Typically the first sign that a patient commonly recognizes is edema, especially in the legs, and sudden weight gain.

Signs and Symptoms –

  • Massive proteinuria and foamy urine appearance
  • Edema, swelling and associated weight gain
  • Hypertension
  • Renal dysfunction with increased creatinine levels
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Microscopic hematuria is occasionally present
  • Fatigue
  • Poor appetite
  • Headache
  • Itchy skin
  • Shortness of air
  • Nausea


  • Chronic kidney failure
  • End-stage kidney disease
  • Infection
  • Malnutrition
  • Nephrotic syndrome


FSGS is a severe form of nephrotic syndrome, and while no cure currently exists, medical care can improve the patient’s quality of life.

Immunosuppressants and steroids – These may be prescribed. However, FSGS is associated with a steroid-resistant gene, so most children with FSGS do not respond to any immunosuppressant therapy.

Medication – ACE-inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers). Possible dialysis within a few years of diagnosis

Kidney failure – If the patient’s condition continues to worsen, kidney failure may occur and a kidney transplant would be needed. Receiving a kidney from a relative is ideal; because of the similarities between the donated kidney and the patient, the kidney may last longer. Learn more about kidney transplantation . In some patients with FSGS, the condition can recur after kidney transplantation, sometimes as quickly as a few days. Because of this, kidney transplantation from a live donor may not be recommended in this situation.

Plasmapheresis – This technique may allow for the removal of the FSGS factor and result in slow disappearance of proteinuria after transplantation.

Life Post-Transplant – Provided the transplant functions well, dialysis will no longer be required. In some patients, however, the kidney transplant may not function forever. Receiving a second kidney transplant may be an option. Transplant success rates are approximately 95% after one year, 80% after five years and 70% after 10 years.

Alternative Treatment


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February 7, 2017

Female sexual dysfunction is a complex and poorly understood condition that affects women of all ages. Sexual dysfunction is defined as a disturbance in, or pain during, the sexual response. This problem is more difficult to diagnose and treat in women than it is in men because of the intricacy of the female sexual response. A woman has female sexual dysfunction, also called FSD, when she is upset or unhappy about her sexual health.

Sexual activity includes a wide variety of intimate activities, such as fondling, self-stimulation, oral sex, vaginal penetration and intercourse. Every woman differs in her sexual interest, response and expression. A woman’s feelings about sexuality can change according to the circumstances and stages of her life. Women also can experience a variety of sexual problems, such as lack of desire, difficulty becoming aroused, difficulty having an orgasm or pain during sex. When a physical or emotional problem associated with sex persists, it’s time to contact a health care professional.

Sexual Dysfunction can be described as –

  • Low Sexual Desire – Diminished libido, or lack of sex drive.
  • Sexual Arousal Disorder – The desire for sex might be intact, but may have difficulty or are unable to become aroused or maintain arousal during sexual activity.
  • Orgasmic Disorder – Women may have persistent or recurrent difficulty in achieving orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation.
  • Sexual Pain Disorder – Women may have pain associated with sexual stimulation or vaginal contact.
  • Low Libido Associated with Menopause

A woman’s sexuality is a complex interplay of physical and emotional responses that affects the way she thinks and feels about herself. When a woman has a sexual problem, it can impact many aspects of her life, including her personal relationships and her self-esteem. Many women are hesitant to talk about their sexuality with their health care professionals, and many health professionals are reluctant to begin a discussion about sexuality with their patients. Instead, women may needlessly suffer in silence when their problems could be treated.

A woman might have more than one of these issues, which are often related to each other. Sexual dysfunction can be lifelong or temporary. It can happen all the time, only with a certain partner, or only at certain times, such as after pregnancy. A healthy sex life depends on a complex mix of many factors. The same is true for a troubled sex life. Health issues, certain prescription medicines, changes in hormone levels, partner or family issues, and psychological concerns can all contribute to FSD.

Types of Sexual Dysfunctions

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder – When sexual fantasies or thoughts and desire for sexual activity are persistently reduced or absent causing distress or relationship difficulties, the problem is known as hypoactive sexual desire disorder, or inhibited sexual desire disorder. The Merck Manual estimates hypoactive sexual desire disorder occurs in about 20 percent of women.

Sexual aversion disorder: Diagnosed when a women avoids all or almost all genital sexual contact with a sexual partner to the point that it causes personal distress and relationship difficulties. This condition may affect women who have experienced some type of sexual abuse or who grew up in a rigid atmosphere in which sex was taboo.

Sexual arousal disorder – The persistent or recurrent inability to reach or sustain the lubrication and swelling reaction in the arousal phase of the sexual response to the point that it causes personal distress. It is the second most common sexual problem among women, affecting an estimated 20 percent of women, and most frequently occurs in postmenopausal women. Low estrogen levels after menopause can make vaginal tissue dry and thin and reduce blood flow to genitals.

Female orgasmic disorder – The persistent absence or recurrent delay in orgasm after sufficient stimulation and arousal, causing personal distress. According to the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, 24 to 37 percent of women have problems reaching orgasm. Most women are biologically able to experience orgasm. Never having an orgasm, or not having one in certain situations, are problems that can often be resolved by learning how the female body responds, how to ensure adequate stimulation and/or how to overcome inhibitions or anxieties.


Once thought to be purely psychological, doctors now know the causes of female sexual dysfunction can be physical, psychological or both. It’s important to rule out physical causes in order to properly address hormonal causes, psychological causes and social causes.

These are some of the possible physical causes of female sexual dysfunction –

  • Nerve damage caused by trauma or surgery
  • Infection in the pelvis
  • Gynecological disease
  • Lubrication insufficiency
  • Fatigue
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Hormone causes and imbalances
  • Menopause hormonal changes
  • Insufficient stimulation
  • Medications that decrease sex drive

Psychological causes and social causes of female sexual dysfunction include the following –

  • Anxiety about sexual intercourse or anxiety disorders
  • Partner-to-partner communication problems
  • Fear of pain, pregnancy or infection caused by sexual intercourse
  • Feeling guilty or shameful
  • Stress
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Marriage/relationship problems

Interpersonal relationship causes may include –

  • Partner performance and technique
  • Lack of a partner
  • Relationship quality and conflict
  • Lack of privacy

Sociocultural influence causes may include –

  • Inadequate education
  • Conflict with religious, personal, or family values
  • Societal taboos

While periodic female sexual dysfunction can be normal, a physician should examine lasting symptoms. Some females are at a higher risk for developing dysfunction. Risk factors include past sexual abuse, including rape.

Risk Factors

Risk may increase if the women –

  • Single, divorced, widowed or separated
  • Not a high school graduate
  • Experiencing emotional or stress-related problems
  • Experiencing a decline in the economic position
  • Feeling unhappy, or physically and emotionally unsatisfied
  • A victim of sexual abuse or forced sexual contact


Up to 70% of couples have a problem with sex at some time in their relationships. Most women will have sex that doesn’t feel good at some point in her life. This doesn’t necessarily mean the women has a sexual problem.

Inhibited sexual desire — This involves a lack of sexual desire or interest in sex. Many factors can contribute to a lack of desire, including hormonal changes, medical conditions and treatments (for example cancer and chemotherapy), depression, pregnancy, stress and fatigue. Boredom with regular sexual routines also may contribute to a lack of enthusiasm for sex, as can lifestyle factors, such as careers and the care of children.

Inability to become aroused — For women, the inability to become physically aroused during sexual activity often involves insufficient vaginal lubrication. The inability to become aroused also may be related to anxiety or inadequate stimulation. In addition, researchers are investigating how blood flow disorders affecting the vagina and clitoris may contribute to arousal problems.

Lack of orgasm (anorgasmia) — This is the delay or absence of sexual climax (orgasm). It can be caused by sexual inhibition, inexperience, lack of knowledge and psychological factors such as guilt, anxiety, or a past sexual trauma or abuse. Other factors contributing to anorgasmia include insufficient stimulation, certain medications and chronic diseases.

Painful intercourse — Pain during intercourse (dyspareunia) can be caused by a number of problems, including endometriosis, pelvic mass, ovarian cysts, inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis), poor lubrication, the presence of scar tissue from surgery and a sexually transmitted disease. A condition called vaginismus is a painful, involuntary spasm of the muscles that surround the vaginal entrance. It may occur in women who fear that penetration will be painful and also may stem from a sexual phobia or from a previous traumatic or painful experience.


Providing education — Education about human anatomy, sexual function and the normal changes associated with aging, as well as sexual behaviors and responses, may help a woman overcome her anxieties about sexual function and performance.

Enhancing stimulation — This may include the use of erotic materials (videos or books), masturbation and changes to sexual routines.

Providing distraction techniques — Erotic or non-erotic fantasies; exercises with intercourse; music, videos or television can be used to increase relaxation and eliminate anxiety.

Encouraging non-coital behaviors — Non-coital behaviors (physically stimulating activity that does not include intercourse), such as sensual massage, can be used to promote comfort and increase communication between partners.

Minimizing pain — Using sexual positions that allow the woman to control the depth of penetration may help relieve some pain. The use of vaginal lubricants can help reduce pain caused by friction, and a warm bath before intercourse can help increase relaxation.

Hormonal treatment

  • Estrogen therapy – Localized estrogen therapy comes in the form of a vaginal ring, cream or tablet. This therapy benefits sexual function by improving vaginal tone and elasticity, increasing vaginal blood flow and enhancing lubrication.
  • Androgen therapy – Androgens include testosterone. Testosterone plays a role in healthy sexual function in women as well as men, although women have much lower amounts of testosterone.

Other medicines

  • Non-prescription treatments, which are hormone-free and have few side effects, can help. They include moisturizers applied to the vagina several times a week or lubricants for the vagina, used just before intercourse.
  • Testosterone, when used short-term (a year or two), may increase sex drive in some women. Testosterone products for women are approved in some countries but not in the U.S. The long-term safety of testosterone for women has not been proven and is being studied.

Devices – A prescription device called the Eros can help with arousal by increasing blood flow to the genital area and enhancing sensation.

Complementary & Alternative Treatment

Vitamin C may help both men and women, as it increases blood flow. One study suggests vitamin C may increase libido in women.

Essential fatty acids, found in evening primrose oil, fish oil, and borage oil, help improve blood flow.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone made by the body’s adrenal glands, has been studied for both men and women. DHEA levels get lower as women grow older.

L-arginine is an amino acid that has numerous functions in the body. It is needed by the body to make nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and allow blood to flow through arteries.

Ginkgo biloba is a herb used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine as a folk remedy for respiratory conditions, cognitive impairment, and circulatory disorders.

Yohimbe – The bark of the herb yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe) was historically used as a folk remedy for sexual dysfunction. The active constituent in the bark is called yohimbine.

Damiana (Turnera diffusa) is a herb used traditionally by the Mayan people of Central America to enhance sexual function in men and women. It is reported to be an aphrodisiac, stimulant, mood enhancer, and a tonic.

Tribulus terrestris – Studies of women who use this herb report greater desire, increased arousal, lubrication, more intense orgasms, and satisfaction.

Suma root – Sometimes called Brazilian Ginseng, this herb is extremely popular with the native population in South America for the way it aids female hormonal balance and excites libido. Science has confirmed suma root increases levels of estradiol-17beta, the primary estrogen hormone during a woman’s reproductive years.

Avena sativa – Generations of women stand by oats (Avena sativa) for its aphrodisiac and libido-stimulating qualities.

Acupuncture is the practice of inserting tiny needles into pressure points all over the body. In traditional Chinese theory, the purpose of acupuncture is to rebalance the energy flow of the body. Many women have claimed that acupuncture has helped decrease sexual pain during intercourse.

Meditation is another way in which women can feel more in touch with themselves and their bodies. Practicing controlled breathing and experiencing the ability to “just be” without life stressors or external judgment has shown to have positive results with their sexuality.


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February 7, 2017

Childbearing and raising of children are extremely important events in every human’s life and are strongly associated with the ultimate goals of completeness, happiness and family integration. It is widely accepted that human existence reaches completeness through a child and fulfils the individual’s need for reproduction. Human fertility, compared with other species of animal kingdom, is unfortunately low.

Female Infertility is defined as the inability of getting pregnant after trying for at least 6 months or one year, for women over 35 years old, without use of birth control means and while having normal sexual intercourse. Infertility may also be referred to as the inability to carry a pregnancy to the delivery of a live baby.

More than 1 out of 10 couples experience infertility. Infertility isn’t just a woman’s problem. Men can have fertility problems, too. When a couple is having a hard time getting pregnant, it is just as likely to be caused by a problem with a man’s fertility as it is with a woman’s fertility.

Natural conception occurs when sperm cells, after sexual intercourse, migrate up through the cervix and uterus and into the fallopian tubes. Somewhere along the fallopian tube the sperm will meet the egg and a single sperm will penetrate the egg and fertilize it. The fertilized egg (called a zygote) continuously divides to form a ball of cells as it travels down the fallopian tube. By the time the fertilised egg has reached the uterus it has developed into a blastocyst.

A blastocyte has an inner group of cells that will become the embryo, and an outer group of cells that will attach the blastocyst to the uterus wall to form the placenta. The placenta carries oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the foetus and waste materials from the foetus to the mother. The blastocyst attaches to the lining of the uterus, where is starts to receive nourishment from the mother’s bloodstream. The implantation of the blastocyst to the uterus lining usually occurs about 10 days after the sperm first penetrated the egg in the fallopian tube. Natural conception is a complex process that relies on a number of factors in order to be successful. These factors include:

  • The production of healthy sperm by the man
  • The production of healthy eggs by the woman
  • Unblocked fallopian tubes to allow the sperm to reach the egg
  • The ability of the sperm to fertilise the egg when they meet in the fallopian tube
  • The ability of the egg to move into the woman’s uterus and become implanted in the uterus wall
  • A good quality embryo
  • Suitable hormonal environment in the woman

When a couple has a problem achieving pregnancy, it’s estimated that about –

  • 1 out of 3 times it’s due to a problem with the man’s fertility
  • 1 out of 3 times it’s due to a problem with the woman’s fertility
  • 1 out of 3 times it’s due to a problem with both the woman’s and the man’s fertility, or a cause cannot be found for the problem

That’s why both the woman and the man usually get tested for fertility problems when a couple is having infertility problems.


Ovulation disorders

Problems with ovulation are the most common cause of infertility in women, experts say. Ovulation is the monthly release of an egg. In some cases the woman never releases eggs, while in others the woman does not release eggs during come cycles.

Ovulation disorders can be due to:

  • Premature ovarian failure – the woman’s ovaries stop working before she is 40.
  • PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) – the woman’s ovaries function abnormally. She also has abnormally high levels of androgen. About 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age are affected to some degree. Also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome.
  • Hyperprolactinemia – if prolactin levels are high and the woman is not pregnant or breastfeeding, it may affect ovulation and fertility.
  • Poor egg quality – eggs that are damaged or develop genetic abnormalities cannot sustain a pregnancy. The older a woman is the higher the risk.
  • Overactive thyroid gland
  • Underactive thyroid gland
  • Some chronic conditions, such as AIDS or cancer.

Poorly Functioning Fallopian Tubes

Tubal disease affects approximately 25% of infertile couples and varies widely, ranging from mild adhesions to complete tubal blockage. Treatment for tubal disease is most commonly surgery and, owing to the advances in microsurgery and lasers, success rates (defined as the number of women who become pregnant within one year of surgery) are as high as 30% overall, with certain procedures having success rates up to 65%. The main causes of tubal damage include –

  • Infection – Caused by both bacteria and viruses and usually transmitted sexually, these infections commonly cause inflammation resulting in scarring and damage. A specific example is Hydrosalpnix, a condition in which the fallopian tube is occluded at both ends and fluid collects in the tube.
  • Abdominal Diseases – The most common of these are appendicitis and colitis, causing inflammation of the abdominal cavity which can affect the fallopian tubes and lead to scarring and blockage.
  • Previous Surgeries -This is an important cause of tubal disease and damage. Pelvic or abdominal surgery can result in adhesions that alter the tubes in such a way that eggs cannot travel through them.
  • Ectopic Pregnancy – This is a pregnancy that occurs in the tube itself and, even if carefully and successfully overcome, may cause tubal damage and is a potentially life-threatening condition.
  • Congenital Defects – In rare cases, women may be born with tubal abnormalities, usually associated with uterus irregularities.

Problems in the uterus or fallopian tubes

The egg travels from the ovary to the uterus (womb) where the fertilized egg grows. If there is something wrong in the uterus or the fallopian tubes the woman may not be able to conceive naturally. This may be due to –

  • Surgery – pelvic surgery can sometimes cause scarring or damage to the fallopian tubes. Cervical surgery can sometimes cause scarring or shortening of the cervix. The cervix is the neck of the uterus.
  • Submucosal fibroids – benign or non-cancerous tumors found in the muscular wall of the uterus, occurring in 30% to 40% of women of childbearing age. They may interfere with implantation. They can also block the fallopian tube, preventing sperm from fertilizing the egg. Large submucosal uterine fibroids may make the uterus’ cavity bigger, increasing the distance the sperm has to travel.
  • Endometriosis – cells that are normally found within the lining of the uterus start growing elsewhere in the body.
  • Previous sterilization treatment – if a woman chose to have her fallopian tubes blocked. It is possible to reverse this process, but the chances of becoming fertile again are not high. However, an eight-year study showed tubal reversal surgery results in higher pregnancy and live birth rates and is less costly than IVF.


Some drugs can affect the fertility of a woman. These include:

  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) – women who take aspirin or ibuprofen long-term may find it harder to conceive.
  • Chemotherapy – some medications used in chemotherapy can result in ovarian failure. In some cases, this side effect of chemotherapy may be permanent.

Behavioral Factors

It is well-known that certain personal habits and lifestyle factors impact health; many of these same factors may limit a couple’s ability to conceive. Fortunately, however, many of these variables can be regulated to increase not only the chances of conceiving but also one’s overall health.

  • Diet and Exercise – Optimal reproductive functioning requires both proper diet and appropriate levels of exercise. Women who are significantly overweight or underweight may have difficulty becoming pregnant.
  • Smoking – Cigarette smoking has been shown to lower sperm counts in men and increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and low-birth-weight babies for women. Smoking by either partner reduces the chance of conceiving with each cycle, either naturally or by IVF, by one-third.
  • Alcohol – Alcohol intake greatly increases the risk of birth defects for women and, if in high enough levels in the motherís blood, may cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Alcohol also affects sperm counts in men.
  • Drugs – Drugs, such as marijuana and anabolic steroids, may impact sperm counts in men. Cocaine use in pregnant women may cause severe retardations and kidney problems in the baby and is perhaps the worst possible drug to abuse while pregnant. Recreational drug use should be avoided, both when trying to conceive and when pregnant.
  • Stress – Excessive physical or emotional stress that results in amenorrhea (absent periods).

Environmental Factors

The ability to conceive may be affected by exposure to various toxins or chemicals in the workplace or the surrounding environment. Substances that can cause mutations, birth defects, abortions, infertility or sterility are called reproductive toxins. Disorders of infertility, reproduction, spontaneous abortion, and teratogenesis are among the top ten work-related diseases and injuries in the U.S. today. Despite the fact that considerable controversy exists regarding the impacts of toxins on fertility, four chemicals are now being regulated based on their documented infringements on conception.

  • Lead – Exposure to lead sources has been proven to negatively impact fertility in humans. Lead can produce teratospermias (abnormal sperm) and is thought to be an abortifacient, or substance that causes artificial abortion.
  • Medical Treatments and Materials – Repeated exposure to radiation, ranging from simple x-rays to chemotherapy, has been shown to alter sperm production, as well as contribute to a wide array of ovarian problems.
  • Ethylene Oxide – A chemical used both in the sterilization of surgical instruments and in the manufacturing of certain pesticides, ethylene oxide may cause birth defects in early pregnancy and has the potential to provoke early miscarriage.
  • Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) – Handling the chemicals found in pesticides, such as DBCP, can cause ovarian problems, leading to a variety of health conditions, like early menopause, that may directly impact fertility.

Risk Factors

  • Age – With increasing age, the quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs begin to decline. In the mid-30s, the rate of follicle loss accelerates, resulting in fewer and poorer quality eggs, making conception more challenging and increasing the risk of miscarriage.
  • Weight – If a women is overweight or significantly underweight, it may hinder normal ovulation. Getting to a healthy body mass index (BMI) has been shown to increase the frequency of ovulation and likelihood of pregnancy.
  • Sexual history – Sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can cause fallopian tube damage. Having unprotected intercourse with multiple partners increases the chances of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that may cause fertility problems later.


The signs and symptoms of infertility in women depend on the underlying condition causing the infertility. In women with regular menstrual cycles (periods), 95% of the time one egg is released in each cycle (each month). Women who have problems in releasing eggs are likely to experience infrequent or absent periods (amenorrhea).

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormone disturbance for women with infertility which results in irregular periods. With this condition some women will experience unwanted hair growth on the face and body, patchy hair loss from the scalp (alopecia) and too much weight gain.

Women with endometriosis are likely to have painful and heavy periods, lower abdominal pain, painful sexual intercourse or a combination of these symptoms.


Medications for Ovulation disorders – If the woman has an ovulation disorder she will probably be prescribed fertility drugs which regulate or induce ovulation. These include –

  • Clomifene (Clomid, Serophene)
  • Metformin (Glucophage)
  • Human menopausal gonadotropin, or hMG, (Repronex)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (Gonal-F, Bravelle)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl)
  • Gn-RH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) analogs
  • Bromocriptine (Parlodel)


  • Fallopian tube surgery – if the fallopian tubes are blocked or scarred surgery may repair them, making it easier for eggs to pass through them.
  • Laparoscopic surgery – a small incision is made in the woman’s abdomen. A thin, flexible microscope with a light at the end (laparoscope) is inserted through the incision. The doctor can then look at internal organs, take samples and perform small operations. For women with endometriosis, laparoscopy removes implants and scar tissue, reducing pain and often aiding fertility.

IVF (in vitro fertilization) – Sperm are placed with unfertilized eggs in a Petri dish; the aim is fertilization of the eggs. The embryo is then placed in the uterus to begin a pregnancy. Sometimes the embryo is frozen for future use (cryopreserved).

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) — Semen is collected from a man. A procedure called “sperm washing” is done to separate the healthy sperm from the rest of the semen. A health care provider puts the sperm directly into the uterus. This puts the sperm closer to the egg. It cuts down the time and distance sperm have to travel to reach an egg. IUI is often referred to as donor insemination, alternative insemination, or artificial insemination.

Assisted hatching -This improves the chances of the embryo’s implantation; attaching to the wall of the uterus. The embryologist opens a small hole in the outer membrane of the embryo, known as the zona pellucid. The opening improves the ability of the embryo to leave its shell and implant into the uterine lining. Patients who benefit from assistant hatching include women with previous IVF failure, poor embryo growth rate, and older women. In some women, particularly older women, the membrane is hardened, making it difficult for the embryo to hatch and implant.

Embryo Transfer – One to three days after the eggs are retrieved, up to four healthy embryos are inserted into the uterus with a thin plastic tube that is passed through the cervix.

  • Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) is a more sophisticated variation of the basic IVF procedure and usually produces a slightly higher pregnancy rate.
  • Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) is the latest variation on the IVF-GIFT technique. The freshly fertilized eggs (zygotes) are placed into the fallopian tubes during a laparoscopy after they have reached the embryo stage.

Lifestyle Changes – Although there are no dietary or nutritional cures for infertility, a healthy lifestyle is important. Some ovulatory problems may be reversible by changing behavioral patterns. Some tips include –

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Women who are either over- or underweight are at risk for fertility failure, including a lower chance for achieving success with fertility procedures.
  • Stop smoking. Smoking may increase the risk for infertility in both men and women. Everyone should quit.
  • Avoid excessive exercise if it causes menstrual irregularity. However, moderate and regular exercise is essential for good health.
  • Avoid or limit caffeine and alcohol.
  • Avoid any unnecessary medications.

Alternative Treatment


Vitamin D- Vitamin D deficiency is very common in America, especially during the winter, and can be very detrimental to overall health. Recent studies link inadequate vitamin D with infertility and miscarriage.

Vitamin C– A potent antioxidant, vitamin C is good for both male and female infertility.

Folic Acid– Folic acid is well known as a necessary vitamin in early pregnancy to prevent complications, but it is most beneficial when taken for several month before the pregnancy as well as during. It helps cell division and promotes ovulation.

Zinc– It is very important for cell division including sperm production and ovulation.

Selenium– Helps protect the body from free radicals and protects sperm and egg.

B-Vitamins– Deficiency of b-vitamins is common in anyone who consumes large amounts of processed foods, grains or sugars. Optimizing b vitamin levels can increase lutenizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to improve fertility.

Bioflavonoids – Helps strengthen the uterus by promoting healthy blood vessels.

Flaxseed oil – A healthy fat that can help normalize hormones and is essential to health.


Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)—Balances hormones.

Chaste tree (Vitex castus)—Raises progesterone levels, lowers estrogen levels, and helps correct ovarian dysfunction.

Dong quai (Angelica sinensis)—Nourishes and balances the female reproductive system.

False unicorn (Helonias dioica)—Has a reputation for promoting fertility, is recommended for ovarian dysfunction and as a uterine tonic.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)—Balances hormones and is anti-inflammatory and sweet tasting (good flavoring for teas).

Red raspberry (Rubus strigosus)—Nourishes and strengthens the female reproductive system.

Squaw vine (Mitchella repens)—Also known as partridge berry. Recommended for fertility as a uterine tonic.

Wild yam (Dioscorea villosa)—Has a reputation for promoting fertility.

To Avoid –

Avoid Estrogen – Estrogen can have a negative effect on the development of the female reproductive tract. Therefore, it is important to reduce or eliminate excess estrogen or estrogen-like chemicals in your body. Avoid all dairy products where cows have been fed hormones. The drop in sperm counts since the 1940s parallels a rise in the consumption of dairy products.

Chemicals, such as PCBs, dioxin, etc. are weakly estrogenic and degenerate very slowly, they hang around for years in our environment. Avoid the use of toxic substances such as fertilizers, cleaners. Also avoid all fatty animal products where chemicals may be stored up without being degraded.

Avoid Heavy Metals – Sperm are affected by lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury. There are many sources of exposure to these heavy metals such as deep-sea fish, cigarette smoke, and water from old pipes. Just as with men, lead, cadmium, or mercury can impair fertility by affecting sex hormones.

Avoid free radicals – We have all heard that free radicals (the hungry and unstable oxygen in our bodies) can cause cancer, heart disease, and increase the aging process. Like –

  • Cigarette smoke
  • Sunlight
  • Unsaturated oils (corn oil may be the worst)
  • Heating oils to too high a temperature when cooking
  • Foods left out of the refrigerator (oxidation causes butter to turn a slight yellow and cut apples to turn brown)

Caffeine and Alcohol – Both can impair female fertility. Excessive alcohol causes prolactin to rise and too much or too little prolactin is associated with infertility. Caffeine causes a decrease in serum prolactin. Caffeinated soft drinks may also reduce the chance of conception.


  • Flower Essences – The flowers of plants may be prepared in a similar way to homeopathic remedies so that the “essence” of the plant is harnessed in a medicinal way. An example is Pomegranate. Its use is described as a treatment for imbalance, i.e., women who are ambivalent or confused about the focus of feminine creativity, home or career, creative or procreative, those who attempt to balance both possibilities may feel drained and the psychological tension may be profound resulting in physical illness especially in the female organs.
  • Stress Reduction/Relaxation Therapies
  • Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise


Reference –




















February 7, 2017

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a long-term condition characterized by gradual loss of kidney function over time. CKD is a worldwide public health problem. There is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost in the United States. There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. The outcomes of CKD are adverse, and include, s kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death, and to prevent these outcomes, it becomes necessary to understand the function of the Kidney and Chronic Kidney Disease.

How does our Kidney function?

The function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption. This process is necessary to maintain a stable balance of body chemicals. The critical regulation of the body’s salt, potassium and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism. Kidney also helps to produce a substance called erythropoietin, which stimulates production of red blood cells.

The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions:

  • remove waste products from the body
  • remove drugs from the body
  • balance the body’s fluids
  • release hormones that regulate blood pressure
  • produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
  • control the production of red blood cells

What is Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)?

CKD includes conditions that damage the kidney and decreases its ability to keep the body healthy by doing its usual job. CKD is usually asymptomatic, but it is detectable, and tests for CKD are simple and freely available. When the kidneys do not work properly, they leave behind waste in the blood. The waste can build up and make the person feel sick. It can cause problems with the heart and can increase the risk of bone loss, broken bones, anemia (a low number of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body), complete kidney failure, and other serious problems. It can also lead to death. Chronic kidney disease is also called chronic renal failure or chronic renal insufficiency.

One way to measure how well the kidneys are working is to figure out the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR is usually calculated using results from the blood creatinine test. Then the stage of kidney disease is figured out using the GFR. There are five stages of kidney disease, from kidney damage with normal GFR to kidney failure.

How is GFR calculated? Doctor can estimate the GFR from the results of a simple blood test for creatinine. Creatinine is a waste product of the body’s muscle activity. Kidneys usually keep the level of creatinine just right. The creatinine result is used in a math formula with the age, race and gender to determine your GFR.

A GFR of 90 or above is considered normal. Even with a normal GFR, you may be at increased risk for developing CKD if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of kidney disease. The risk increases with age: People over 65 are more than twice as likely to develop CKD as people between the ages of 45 and 65. The 5 stages are:





Normal kidney function but urine findings or structural abnormalities or genetic trait point to kidney disease.




Mildly reduced kidney function, and symptoms as stage 1


Moderately reduced kidney function
415-29Severely reduced kidney function



<15 or on dialysis

Very severe, or end stage kidney failure (sometimes call established renal failure


Causes of CKD

CKD is usually caused by conditions that put strain on the kidneys. The two main causes are:

  • Diabetes – Diabetes is a condition in which the body produces no – or too little – insulin (type 1 diabetes) or has become unable to make effective use of insulin (type 2 diabetes). If diabetes is poorly controlled, too much glucose can build up in your blood. The glucose can damage the tiny filters in the kidneys, which affects the ability of your kidneys to filter out waste products and fluids. The first sign of diabetic kidney disease is the appearance of low levels of protein in the urine.
  • High Blood Pressure – High blood pressure puts more stress on blood vessels throughout the body, including the kidneys filters called the nephrons. If uncontrolled, or poorly controlled, high blood pressure can be a leading cause of heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney disease. Also, chronic kidney disease can cause high blood pressure.

Other causes are:

  • Overuse of pain killers and allergic reactions to antibiotics – Heavy use of painkillers containing ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), or acetaminophen (Tylenol) have been linked to interstitial nephritis, a kidney inflammation that can lead to kidney failure. Allergic reactions to or side effects of antibiotics like penicillin and vancomycin may also result in CKD.
  • Drug Abuse – Use of certain non-prescribed drugs, such as heroin or cocaine, can damage the kidney.
  • Inflammation – Glomerulonephritis, a group of diseases that cause inflammation and causes damage to the kidney’s filtering units. Some glomerulonephritis is inherited, and some may be an immune response to infections like strep throat. Sometimes, these are enough to cause CKD.
  • Environmental Toxins – Exposure to various toxic agents and conditions in the natural and occupational environment such as heavy metals, industrial chemicals, elevated ambient temperatures, and infections can lead to CKD. Various toxins are derived from gut micro biota, and an imbalance of gut micro biota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut micro biota and renal failure are still obscure. Toxics include –
    • Cadmium
    • Fluoride in drinking water
    • Combination of fluoride in drinking water and aluminum vessel
    • Arsenic
    • Hard Water
    • Cyanobacterial toxins
    • Bioaccumulation – pesticide residues, heavy metals and toxins in the plants and aquatic animals
    • Liquor – Illicit liquor is another probable cause
    • Pesticides
    • Lead
  • Blockages – Infections or a malformed lower urinary tract system (birth defect) can force urine to back up into the kidney and damage it. Blood clots or plaques of cholesterol that block the kidney’s blood vessels can reduce blood flow to the kidney and cause damage. Repeated kidney stones can block the flow of urine from the kidney and are another kind of obstruction that can damage the kidneys.
  • Family History – The person having one or more family members with CKD or on dialysis or kidney transplant may be at high risk of getting this condition. One inherited disease, polycystic kidney disease, causes large, fluid-filled cysts that eventually crowd out normal kidney tissue. Diabetes and high blood pressure can also run in families.
  • Premature Birth – About one in five very premature infants (less than 32 weeks gestation) may have calcium deposits in parts of the kidney called nephrons. This is termed nephrocacinosis. Sometimes, individuals with this condition may go on to develop kidney problems later in life.
  • Certain Diseases – Having certain diseases puts people at higher risk for kidney disease. These diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus (a connective tissue disease), sickle cell anemia, cancer, AIDS, hepatitis C, and congestive heart failure.


Many people who have chronic kidney disease don’t know it, because the early signs can be very subtle. It can take many years to go from chronic kidney disease (CKD) to kidney failure. Some people with CKD live out their lives without ever reaching kidney failure.

Symptoms include –

  • Change in urination – Kidneys are responsible for making urine, hence, the when kidneys fail to function properly, the urine may change (color, difficulty in urinating, urine may be foamy or bubbly, increased need to urinate, especially at night)
  • Swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, face and/or hands – Failing kidneys don’t remove extra fluid, which builds up in the body.
  • Fatigue – Healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin that tells the body to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail, they make less erythropoietin. With fewer red blood cells to carry oxygen, the muscles and brain become tired very quickly. This condition is called anemia, and it can be treated.
  • Skin Rash – Kidney cleans the body by removing wastes from the body. When it fails in performing its functions, the waste called uremia, accumulates in the blood and causes severe itching.
  • Ammonia Breath – The accumulation of waste in the blood can make the food taste different and cause foul breath.
  • Nausea & Vomiting – A severe build-up of wastes in the blood (uremia) can also cause nausea and vomiting. Loss of appetite can lead to weight loss.
  • Shortness of breath – Due to extra fluid in the body and anemia
  • Feeling Cold – Due to anemia


Conventional Medicines

  • Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) – ARBs are drugs that block the action of angiotensin 2 on its receptors. These drugs, like ACE-I, have a protective effect on the kidneys and slow the progression of kidney failure. Drugs included in this category include losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), irbesartan (Avapro), candesartan (Atacand) and olmesartan (Benicar).
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) – ACE-Is are drugs commonly used in the treatment of hypertension. The drugs include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil), ramipril (Altace), quinapril (Accupril), benazepril (Lotensin) and trandolapril (Mavik). These drugs decrease blood pressure by reducing production of angiotensin-II (a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict) and aldosterone (a hormone that causes sodium retention).
  • Diuretics – The doctor may prescribe diuretics (water pills) to control edema (swelling), blood pressure and/or potassium levels. There are several classes of diuretics, including loop diuretics (furosemide, ethacrynic acid, bumetanide, torsemide), thiazides (hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, indapamide), and potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, eplerenone, amiloride, triamterene). Diuretics differ in their potential to eliminate salt and water.
  • Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) – Patients with chronic kidney disease often develop anemia due to a lack of erythropoietin produced by the kidneys. Anemia is a condition with too few red cells and is characterized by fatigue and tiredness. After excluding other causes of anemia, the doctor may prescribe erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). This includes Procrit (erythropoietin), Aranesp (darbepoetin), or Omontys (peginesatide). ESAs also stimulate the bone marrow to produce red cells and reduce the need for blood transfusions.
  • Phosphate binders – Binders are divided into large classes, including calcium-based binders such as Tums (calcium carbonate) and PhosLo (calcium acetate) and non-calcium based binders like Fosrenol (lanthanum carbonate), Renagel (sevelamer hydrochloride) and Renvela (sevelamer carbonate).
  • Vitamin D -Vitamin D deficiency is very common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The first step in treating metabolic bone disease is to ensure that there are adequate reserves of vitamin D in the body.


  • Dialysis – removes Dialysis helps to maintain your body’s balance by removing waste and extra fluid from the blood, keeping the blood’s chemical balance at a safe level and assisting with blood pressure control. Dialysis is a useful and important treatment.
    • Haemodialysis – Uses machine acting as an artificial kidney cleans the blood. Requires good access to your bloodstream, which may be an issue if you have diabetes. If you have heart problems, changes in blood pressure and waste levels associated with haemodialysis can cause problems.
    • Peritoneal Dialysis – Allows the blood to be cleaned inside the body and is usually done at home. PD may not be possible if you’ve had major abdominal surgery causing scarring. It may also be difficult to obtain the right amount of dialysis with PD if you are tall and muscular, or overweight.
  • Transplantation – If you start dialysis you will also be assessed for your suitability for transplantation. Health issues may prevent this option.
  • Conservative or Supportive Care – If you decide that dialysis or transplant is not for you, then your health-care team will support you to stay as healthy as possible without dialysis. Your life-span however will be limited.

Alternative Medicine

Environmental Medicine focuses on finding the causes of an illness rather than just treating the effects.

  • Biodetoxification Prgramme – Safe, intensive treatment for the reduction of the body’s burden of toxic chemicals. Biodetoxification Program utilizes clinical procedures that safely reduce the body’s burden of toxic chemicals, including chemicals stored following occupational, accidental, and/or chronic airborne exposures. Chemicals bind to human tissues on the basis of their lipophilic properties — meaning literally “attracted to fats.” When our bodies absorb lipophilic toxins, they are deposited in the fat stores and released whenever those fatty tissues are broken down to provide energy. Thus, although a patient may initially be poisoned by an extrinsic (outside) source of toxicants, the patient may continue to be poisoned over a prolonged period of time by our own intrinsic (inside) body stores of those poisons.
  • Fish Oils – Fish oils affect the progression of CKD. In one meta-analysis some studies indicate a negative effect on the progression of CKD
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements – Replacement of certain vitamins and minerals that that the patient does not get in the diet or that are lost during dialysis.
  • Avoiding IV Dye – Avoiding X-ray tests that require IV dye (contrast material), such as an angiogram, an intravenous pyelogram (IVP), and some CT scans. IV dye can cause more kidney damage.
  • Diet – This may include – Avoid products with added salt, lower potassium foods, limited amount of protein in the diet.
  • Chinese Herbal Medicine – Acupuncture, Lei Gong Teng, Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy are the natural alternative treatments for kidney failure which is used externally.
  • Ayurveda – Gokshura and Mutrakrichantak Churna which contains herbs like Punarnava, Varuna, Shigru, Apamarg etc. maintain effective kidney functioning by promoting proper urination, reducing kidney discomforts and removing stones and helps to reduce accompanying fluid accumulation and kidney tissue inflammation.
  • Herbal treatment – Cornsilk, dandelion, astragalus, basil etc. helps to cleanse and strengthen the kidney.