April 1, 2022

Bile Reflux also called duodenogastric reflux, is a condition where the bile – a digestive fluid produced in the liver, flows upward i.e. refluxes from the small intestine towards the stomach and esophagus.

Bile is a digestive fluid produced in the liver. Some of the components that make up bile are –

  • Water
  • Cholesterol
  • Bile pigments
  • Bile salts

Bile is produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the duodenum (the upper section of the small intestine) when needed to aid the digestion of fats. Bile is essential for digesting fats and for eliminating aged red blood cells and certain toxins from the body.

Bile reflux is the result of bile that travels up from the small intestine into the stomach and esophagus. Bile reflux is caused by damage to the pyloric valve, which is a ring of muscle that separates the stomach from the duodenum. When the pyloric valve fails to close properly, bile flows into the stomach, causing pain and inflammation.

BR is sometimes confused with acid reflux because a person can experience some of the same symptoms and bile (like GERD) irritates the lining of the esophagus, potentially increasing the risk of esophageal cancer. The difference is –

  • Acid reflux symptoms are indigestion, heartburn, stomach pain, pain swallowing and esophagus inflammation caused by stomach acids going through the lower esophageal sphincter into the esophagus.
  • Bile reflux symptoms are heartburn, gastritis, hoarseness, chronic cough, pain swallowing, esophagus inflammation caused by bile from the gallbladder making its way through the pyloric valve from the small intestine continuing its way through the lower esophageal sphincter into the esophagus.

Bile reflux causes damage to the lining of the stomach (called gastritis), which may progress to sores in the stomach (known as ulcers), bleeding, and stomach cancer. In patients that have both bile reflux and acid reflux, the combination seems to be particularly harmful, increasing the risk of damage to the esophagus, including conditions such as Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer.


Bile reflux into the stomach – Bile is secreted in the duodenum and passes down the gut with the rest of the intestinal chyme. If the integrity of the pyloric valve – part of the stomach that controls the outflow of gastric contents into the duodenum, is compromised then the retrograde flow of bile may occur leading to irritation of the stomach lining. This can cause persistent gastritis despite the appropriate gastritis treatment.

Bile reflux into the esophagus – If the lower esophageal sphincter is also impaired, then the bile along with the acidic stomach contents can flow up into the esophagus. Irritation of the mucosal lining by the bile, even if the stomach acid is neutralized by one or more agents discussed under stomach acid medication, will cause the typical symptoms associated with acid reflux.

Most cases of bile reflux are associated with chronic conditions affecting the pyloric sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter (LES).

Risk Factors

Surgery complications – Gastric surgery, including total removal of the stomach (gastrectomy) and gastric bypass surgery for weight loss, is responsible for most bile reflux.

Peptic ulcers – A peptic ulcer can block the pyloric valve so that it doesn’t open enough to allow the stomach to empty as quickly as it should. Stagnant food in the stomach can lead to increased gastric pressure and allow bile and stomach acid to back up into the esophagus.

Gallbladder surgery (cholecystectomy) – People who have had their gallbladders removed have significantly more bile reflux than do people who haven’t had this surgery.


  • General – Bile reflux and acid reflux have similar signs and symptoms, and the two conditions may occur at the same time. Unlike acid reflux, bile reflux often causes a burning or gnawing pain in the stomach.
  • Cough or hoarseness – Some, but not all, patients with bile reflux experience a cough or hoarseness that is caused by stomach acid and/or bile rising up into the throat and burning the lining.
  • Frequent heartburn – Heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest that may spread to the throat along with a sour taste in the mouth. In severe cases, it may be mistaken for a heart attack.
  • Nausea and vomiting – Nausea is feeling the need to vomit. Some patients with bile reflux may vomit bile.
  • Upper abdominal pain – Bile reflux often causes a burning or gnawing pain in the stomach.
  • Weight loss – In some patients with bile reflux, unintended weight loss may occur.


GERD – Occasional heartburn usually isn’t a concern. But frequent or continual heartburn is the most common symptom of GERD, a potentially serious problem that causes irritation and inflammation of esophageal tissue (esophagitis). GERD is most often due to excess acid. Although bile has been implicated, its importance in reflux is controversial.

Barrett’s esophagus – This serious condition can occur when long-term exposure to stomach acid, or to acid and bile, damages tissue in the lower esophagus. The damaged esophageal cells have an increased risk of becoming cancerous. Animal studies have also linked bile reflux to the occurrence of Barrett’s esophagus.

Esophageal cancer – This form of cancer may not be diagnosed until it’s quite advanced. The possible link between bile and acid reflux and esophageal cancer remains controversial, but many experts think a direct connection exists. In animal studies, bile reflux alone has been shown to cause cancer of the esophagus.

Gastritis – In addition to causing irritation and inflammation in the esophagus, bile reflux can cause stomach irritation (gastritis).



  • Ursodeoxycholic acid – This medication helps promote bile flow. It may lessen the frequency and severity of your symptoms.
  • Bile acid sequestrants – Doctors often prescribe bile acid sequestrants, which disrupt the circulation of bile, but studies show that these drugs are less effective than other treatments. Side effects, such as bloating, may be severe.
  • Proton pump inhibitors – These medications are often prescribed to block acid production, but they don’t have a clear role in treating bile reflux.


Diversion surgery (Roux-en-Y) – This procedure, which is also a type of weight-loss surgery, recommended for people who have had previous gastric surgery with pylorus removal. In Roux-en-Y, surgeons make a new connection for bile drainage farther down in the small intestine, diverting bile away from the stomach.

Anti-reflux surgery (fundoplication) – The part of the stomach closest to the esophagus (fundus) is wrapped and then sewn around the lower esophageal sphincter. This procedure strengthens the valve and can reduce acid reflux. There is little evidence about the surgery’s effectiveness for bile reflux.

Lifestyle Changes

Limit or avoid alcohol – Drinking alcohol irritates the esophagus and relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter, predisposing the body to acid reflux.

Quit smoking – Smoking increases the production of stomach acid and dries up saliva, which cause the esophagus to be more vulnerable to damage by refluxed bile and stomach acid.

Relaxation – Patients under stress experience slower digestion, which may worsen reflux symptoms.

Tilted bed – Raising the head of the bed by about 4-6 inches may prevent reflux symptoms. Using a wedge or blocks is more effective than using pillows.

Weight loss – Overweight patients with bile reflux may lessen the backflow of bile when less body fat is pressing down on the stomach and small intestine.

Alternative Treatment

Magnesium helps control the muscle function in the digestive tract and throughout the body. It also aids in digestion to alleviate reflux issues.

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is naturally found in vegetables, fruits, grains, and animal products. DMSO is available for both nonmedicinal and medicinal uses. The major clinical use of DMSO is to relieve symptoms of interstitial cystitis (chronic bladder infection).

A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B vitamins, and trace minerals, such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium.

Gamma-oryzanol occurs in rice bran oil and has been extracted from corn and barley oils as well. Gamma-oryzanol is frequently sold as a body-building aid, specifically to increase testosterone levels, stimulate the release of endorphins (pain-relieving substances made in the body), and promote the growth of lean muscle tissue.

Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, may help decrease inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of bleeding, as ask your doctor before taking omega-3 fatty acids if you take blood-thinning medications.

Qi gong, an ancient type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) consisting of choreographed movements, postures, and meditation, has been used for thousands of years. It is traditionally used for spiritual enlightenment, medical care, and self-defense. Qi gong is meant to be in balance with the environment and has been described as “a way of working with life energy.”

Probiotics or “friendly” bacteria may help maintain a balance in the digestive system between good and harmful bacteria.

Chamomile, which has anti-inflammatory properties. Chamomile teas are readily available and have a low risk of side effects.

Licorice, which is commonly used to soothe inflammation associated with GERD, gastritis, ulcers and other digestive problems. However, licorice contains a phytochemical called glycyrrhizin that’s associated with serious health risks — such as high blood pressure and tissue swelling — if used long term. Talk with your doctor before trying this therapy. Prescription preparations are available that don’t contain glycyrrhizin.

Slippery elm, which encourages a protective mucous lining. Available as a root bark powder, slippery elm can be mixed with water and taken after meals and before bed. It may, however, decrease the absorption of prescription medications.

Marshmallow (Althea officinalis), which has been used for GERD symptom relief. Like slippery elm, marshmallow may cause problems with the absorption of medications. Note that this is the herb, not the puffy white confection.

Thymus extracts for nutritional supplements are usually bovine (derived from young calves). Thymus extract is commonly used to stimulate the immune system and to treat bone marrow failure, autoimmune disorders, chronic skin diseases, recurrent viral and bacterial infections, hepatitis, allergies, chemotherapy side effects, and cancer.

Garlic – The garlic bulb is made of many cloves wrapped with a paper-thin, white skin, and it is used both medicinally and as a spice in food (fresh or dehydrated). Garlic is widely used for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer.


Are you suffering from bile reflux and need treatment? We at the Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine have a group of experts at your service. Call us at 843-572-1600 to book an appointment now.


Reference –

February 7, 2017

Lifestyle of a person should be a main concern when it comes to yeast infection recovery, and the best way for it is ‘Yeast Eradication’.

Yeast is a part of a normal and healthy gut flora. But it becomes a cause of numerous health issues, if overgrown. The over grown yeast in the gut can become a cause of gastrointestinal discomfort, fatigue, joint pain, weight gain, rashes, acne, white coating on the tongue and intense cravings for alcohols, sugars and starches. It is highly recommended to directly kill the yeast to get rid of all the possible health effects.

Because of the “whole body” stress that the yeast can cause, especially in serious cases, it is crucial that the treatment approach should be thorough. A haphazard approach is destined to fail, as Yeast will find a way to multiply when given the smallest opportunity. Yeast eradication is the most effective treatment.

Yeast eradication involves –

  • Killing excess yeast in the intestines and eliminating its breeding grounds by cleaning the bowel. It re-establishes a healthy balance of flora through supplementation with friendly bacteria.
  • To stop the body from feeding the Candida by helping the person to adopts a diet that starves the yeast while nourishing your body.
  • By eliminating the mycelial form of yeast that has migrated to other organs in the body (systemic Candida overgrowth) and detoxifies the Candida’s waste products.
  • To strengthen the body and help the immune system rebuild itself.
  • Killing Excess Yeast in the Bowel – The health of the bowel affects the entire health of the body. The Gut flora of the body is made up of delicately balanced community of micro-organisms. Studies suggest that many immunological dysfunctions are related to an imbalance in intestinal flora. When harmful intestinal bacteria (pathogens) outnumber good bacteria, health is compromised.

Healthy bowel flora is important for the maintenance of intestinal pH, strong digestion, and the production of vitamins, hormones, and immune-modulating substances. Pathogens like Candida, on the other hand, produce toxic byproducts in the intestines. These poisons can be absorbed into the bloodstream, causing a condition known as “auto-intoxication.” It is universally accepted that auto-intoxication is the underlying cause of a large number of symptoms and illnesses.

  • Starving Candida – Sugars, yeast, most fermented foods, and anything quickly converted into sugar, (i.e., simple starches) are “SUPERFOOD” for Candida. To ensure a complete recovery from Candida, it is important to refrain from foods that nourish it.
  • Eliminating Systemic Candidiasis – It is not unusual for someone suffering from “Systemic Candidiasis” (the mycelial fungal form), to have problems in many different organ systems. The mycelial form of Candida has the ability to migrate throughout the body. The fungi grow root-like extensions called mycelia. These mycelia serve to help the Candida travel through tissue in the body so that it can invade any organ. The mycelia also allow the Candida to anchor itself into tissue, weakening the cellular structures. The Candida then sucks nutrients from the host’s tissue. It emits enzymes that actually digest human cells.
  • Strengthening the Body and Rebuilding the Immune System – Immune weakness is frequently a contributing factor to the development of Candidiasis or the result of it. Candida yeast releases waste material (like acetaldehyde and alcohol), and the blood, liver, and lymphatic system can become overburdened. When the body is congested with waste material, the immune system becomes overworked in its attempt to provide protection from these toxins and cannot remain efficient at preventing other health problems. Candidiasis is often an overlooked component of many other health problems, including colds, flu, arthritis, viral infections, immune diseases, cancer, and AIDS.

The yeast Eradication treatment includes –

Cleansing – Psyllium, Caproil, and Bentonite – These three substances pass through the intestines together, they thicken into an absorbent, cleansing gel. The movements of the intestines turn this gel round and round, forcing it against the sides of the intestines, where, in effect, it scrubs Candida away and soaks up toxins for easy elimination.

  • Psyllium acts as an internal scrubbing brush. Its bulking action forces the Caproil and Bentonite against the sides of the colon. Psyllium’s absorptive ability also complements Charcoal’s toxin-attracting properties.
  • Caproil acts like a detergent on the Psyllium brush, killing yeast on contact.
  • Castor oil help break up waste in the intestines and liver.
  • MSM addresses parasites as well as Candida. Yeast also lives IN mucus and MSM is a good mucus stripper.
  • Bentonite soaks up dead yeast and toxins and helps the PSYLLIUM pull this debris from the body. Hydrated Bentonite is a super absorbent liquid day preparation, scientifically proven to absorb (attract) toxins, bacteria, and viruses. Combining its powerful properties with PSYLLIUM’s absorptive power and bulking action ensures that wastes are quickly eliminated.
  • Flora Rebalancing (Bacteria, Probiotics, Soil-based Organisms, Colostrum)– Lactobacillus is a group of friendly microorganisms known to transform milk into yogurt and cheese. They are useful in helping maintain the delicate balance of fungus and bacteria in the intestinal tract.

Nutritional Supplements

  • Vitamins & Minerals – Biotin is a B vitamin which is essential for the metabolism of fats and proteins. It is believed to play some role in preventing candida from converting into its invasive form.
  • Balanced free-form amino acids.
  • Antioxidants such as Vitamin E, A, balanced B, L-Lysine and Pantothenic acid. Vitamins A and C help with the infection resulting from fungal micro punctures made into the intestinal walls.
  • Copper and zinc work together. Imbalanced copper levels directly tie to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Candida. Copper serves as a natural antifungal. People with Candida, parasites or Epstein-Barr virus commonly have an excess of copper and mercury in their body.
  • Studies suggest that germanium improves many illnesses including Candida. Organic germanium increases tissue oxygenation.

Diet – Diet plays a large role in the development of Candidiasis, and so diet modification has to play a role in recovery. An anti-Candida diet is essential, whether the condition is mild or severe. This does not mean that the person will never eat his/her favourite foods again, but at least during the program the person may have to incorporate substitutions in some of the meals. The foods that promote yeast growth need to be eliminated or reduced, and more healthy, immune boosting foods need to be introduced to strengthen health and immunity.

The Foods to Avoid – Any foods containing fruit, fruit juice, sugar, or even natural sweeteners (except stevia) will help Candida to multiply. Fermented foods like vinegar, miso, cheeses, and alcohol, can also aggravate the condition by nourishing the yeast. Some foods that are “yeast-like” can cause sensitivities because one is sensitized to the Candida (e.g., mushrooms, yeast extract, and baker’s or nutritional yeast). Starchy foods such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, white rice, breads (even yeast-free breads are starchy), and pasta are quickly converted into sugars.

Starchy foods need to be avoided at the beginning of the program, but can gradually be reintroduced as you improve. Processed foods, preservatives, and refined or cooked unsaturated oils, weaken the body and should be avoided. Mucus-producing foods such as dairy foods (including cheese), refined flours, and meat should be restricted as they promote sluggish digestion and will slow the elimination of wastes from the bowel.The following should be reduced –

  • Chocolate
  • Citrus
  • Corn
  • Food coloring and additives
  • Fruit punches
  • Milk
  • Processed and packaged foods
  • Soft drinks
  • Sugar
  • Wheat
  • Yeast
  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Coffee
  • Eggs
  • Oats
  • Pork
  • Rice
  • Tea
  • Tomatoes
  • White potatoes

The Foods to include – A detoxifying diet rich in a variety of fibre, essential fatty acids, vegetables, legumes, white meats, alternative grains (in moderation), and complementary vegetarian proteins (beans combined with grains) is the most supportive to this program. Healthy oils like flax oil (always served unheated), which are rich in essential fatty acids, can support the healing process and can also help to conquer the yeast.

Stevia extract is a very special sweetener and a lifesaver for those with Candida. It contains no glucose and, therefore, does not nourish yeast at all. Satisfying the sugar craving with stevia can prevent many a regretful sugar binge caused by Candida urgings. This amazing extract is approximately 40 times sweeter than sugar (1 tsp. = approx. 1 cup sugar). It comes in a powder (which can be dispensed in a salt shaker) or a liquid and can be heated or dissolved in liquids. It is so versatile it can even be used to sweeten baked goods. There is a broad range in the quality of Stevia.

February 7, 2017

The digestive system is responsible for providing the body with energy and nutrients. The digestive organs break down food into small nutrient molecules that are used to supply the body’s energy needs, and also absorb the raw materials that are required for growth and repair. Mechanical digestion, such as chewing, breaks down food by physical action; chemical digestion uses digesting agents called enzymes to break down food particles even further, which occurs throughout the system – even in the mouth.

Stomach acid or hydrochloric acid (HCl), is a very powerful digestive agent, and much more important than you realize.

HCl’s important functions include –

  • Breaking down proteins into the essential amino acids and nutrients your body needs in order to stay healthy.
  • Stimulating your pancreas and small intestines to produce the digestive enzymes and bile necessary to further breakdown the carbohydrates, proteins and fats you eat.
  • Preventing disease by killing pathogenic bacteria and yeast normally present in food.
  • As you age, your stomach acid tends to decrease anyway. Add a poor diet of processed foods and you may find that you have both digestive and immune problems.

The condition of both low and excess stomach acid is highly uncomfortable and irritating.

The digestive system secretes enzymes, intrinsic factors and gastric acids – necessary for proper digestion of food in the stomach to break down and digest the food we consume. Gastric acids consist of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, potassium chloride and protein-digesting enzyme pepsin, with a pH of 1-2 in the lumen of the stomach. Secretion is induced by the smell, sight or the feel of food in the mouth. The stomach, gallbladder, and pancreas work together as a team to perform the majority of the digestion of food.

When the secretion of gastric acid increases or decreases in the stomach it leads to various stomach-related problems – resulting in discomfort, burning sensation, gastric ulcers and basic gastritis. Only about 1 in 10 people with acid problems actually do have too much stomach acid – the rest actually has insufficient stomach acids (hypochlorydia) or a different problem altogether such as a food intolerance.


Several factors can cause stomach acid imbalance –

  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies can cause a vicious cycle of low stomach acid and malnutrition because they are all needed for stomach acid production. If any of these are lacking in the diet, hypochlorhydria can develop. In turn, hypochlorhydria affects the body’s ability to absorb the vitamins and minerals it needs to produce the proper levels of HCl. The lack of proper nutrient absorption sets the stage for the vicious cycle of low stomach acid output and chronic nutrient deficiencies.
  • Chronic stress can impair the body’s ability to produce the proper amount of HCl.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption can damage the cells that produce HCl in the stomach.
  • The presence in the stomach of a common bacteria, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), can impair the body’s ability to produce the proper amount of HCl.
  • HCl production decreases with age. The average 60-year-old produces only one-fourth as much HCl as a 20-year-old.
  • Insufficiency of stomach acid leads to indigestion, leaving food undigested in the stomach, where bacteria and other micro-organisms start to grow. This imbalance can hinder your body’s ability to absorb nutrients, even if you eating healthy foods.
  • Long-term deficiency of nutrients can cause more serious health issues, mostly arising from weak immune system. All other symptoms that are associated with low stomach acid arise due to the presence of undigested foods in the stomach.


There are a number of symptoms that can be apparent with a stomach acid imbalance. Some of the symptoms of stomach acid imbalance are provided below –

  • Bloating
  • Belchin
  • Pain or tenderness in the middle of the abdomen
  • Excessive feeling of fullness
  • Fungal infections, such as, candida
  • Indigestion
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Food allergies
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Undigested foods in stools
  • Heartburn
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies
  • Fatigue
  • Autoimmune disorders


  • Obesity, slow metabolism and inability to lose weight
  • Chronic inflammation
  • High blood pressure
  • Weight gain, obesity and diabetes
  • Bladder and kidney conditions, including kidney stones
  • Weakened immunity
  • Premature aging
  • Osteoporosis, weak or brittle bones, fractures and bone spurs.
  • Joint pain, aching muscles and lactic-acid buildup
  • Low energy and chronic fatigue
  • Mood swings
  • Slow digestion and elimination
  • Yeast/fungal overgrowth


Conventional and prescription medications used to treat stomach acid imbalance may deplete nutrients or interfere with nutrient absorption. Following is a list of conventional medicines that may be used and the nutrients they may deplete:

  • Antacids – Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia, Amphojel, Tums, Mylanta, Maalox. Products used to neutralize stomach acid.
  • Histamine H2 antagonists – Tagamet, Zantac, Pepcid. A group of medications that block H2 receptors to control stomach acid production.
  • Products to relieve indigestion, gas, and bloating – CharcoCaps, Gas-X, Mylicon, Phazyme, Pepto-Bismol.
  • Proton pump inhibitors – Prilosec, Prevacid, Protonix, Aciphex. A group of medications that stop stomach acid production by shutting down a system in the stomach known as the proton pump.

Alternative Treatment

Protein – HCI initiates the digestion of protein in the stomach by converting pepsinogen into the proteolytic enzyme, pepsin. Once formed, pepsin acts to break proteins into smaller peptides that can be absorbed by the small intestine. Without adequate gastric secretions, incompletely digested macromolecules can be absorbed into the systemic circulation.

Carbohydrates and Fats – HCl supports the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins A and E by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile into the small intestine.

Vitamins and Minerals – HCl also aids in the absorption and assimilation of vitamins and minerals such as folic acid, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and iron, by increasing their bioavailability and effecting their release from food.

Betaine Hydrochloric Acid is a nutritional supplement that is used to restore normal gastric acid.

Pepsin helps to assist digestion.

Peppermint is used to aid the various processes of digestion due to its antibacterial and gastric-acid-promoting effects. Peppermint also aids digestive function by combating gas, increasing the flow of bile, and healing the stomach and liver.

Gentian (Gentiana lutea) – The bitter principles of the dried root of Gentiana lutea have been used in Europe as a digestive aid for centuries, especially in Swedish bitters. Gentian roots were historically used topically to treat skin tumors, and internally to treat fever and diarrhea.

Digestive Enzymes helps to break down hard-to-digest foods and eases indigestion, bloating, and gas.

Probiotics – Helps bring balance to your digestive tract with friendly bacteria. Promote regularity, enhance your immune system, support healthy intestinal flora, and soothe stomach upset.

Basil- Can be made into a tea by mixing one ounce basil leaves with a pint of water and simmering for twenty minutes.

Ginger– Can be made into a tea by grating one ounce of fresh ginger and simmering ten minutes in a pint of water. Ginger should always be added to meat since it aids digestion of the meat.

Dill– An infusion of dill can be taken three times a day for upset stomach. An infusion can be made by placing one ounce of dill in a pint of boiling water and steeping in an air tight container.

Aromatherapy – Essential oils are the distilled essence of plants and herbs. They are very potent and provide many therapeutic benefits. Various essential oils may be applied to acupressure points on the feet or back to support your gastrointestinal system.

Stress Reduction Techniques – Chronic stress can have a negative impact on our overall health. In relation to our gastrointestinal system, it can put our sympathetic nervous system into overdrive. This causes our digestion to be sluggish. Stress management is the key to feeling better and staying healthy.


Reference –!

February 7, 2017

Pancreatitis is an uncommon disease characterized by inflammation of the pancreas.

The pancreas is located deep in the retroperitoneal space of the upper part of the abdomen. It is almost completely covered by the stomach and duodenum. This elongated gland (12–20 cm long in the adult) has a lobe-like structure. Variation in shape and exact body location is common. In most people, the larger part of the gland’s head is located to the right of the spine or directly over the spinal column and extends to the spleen. The gland has both exocrine and endocrine functions. In its exocrine capacity, the acinar cells produce digestive juices, which are secreted into the intestine and are essential in the breakdown and metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. In its endocrine function capacity, the pancreas also produces insulin and glucagon, which are secreted into the blood to regulate glucose levels.

Pancreatitis is a disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. Pancreatic damage happens when the digestive enzymes are activated before they are released into the small intestine and begin attacking the pancreas.

There are two forms of pancreatitis – Acute and Chronic.

  • Acute pancreatitis generally develops suddenly, and it is usually a short-term (a few days to weeks) illness that typically resolves with appropriate medical management. Most people with acute pancreatitis recover completely after getting the right treatment. In severe cases, acute pancreatitis can result in bleeding into the gland, serious tissue damage, infection, and cyst formation. Severe pancreatitis can also harm other vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys.
  • Chronic pancreatitis, which typically develops after multiple episodes of acute pancreatitis, is a long-term condition that can last for months or even several years. Heavy alcohol drinking is another big cause. Damage to the pancreas from heavy alcohol use may not cause symptoms for many years, but then the person may suddenly develop severe pancreatitis symptoms.

Who is at Risk?

People with these conditions or characteristics have a higher risk for pancreatitis:

  • Biliary tract disease
  • Binge alcohol use and chronic alcoholism
  • Recent surgery
  • Family history of high triglycerides
  • Age (most common ages 35 to 64)
  • Smokers
  • African Americans are at higher risk than Caucasians and Native Americans.


There are several possible causes of pancreatitis. The most common are gallstones, which block the duct of the pancreas (for acute pancreatitis), and excessive alcohol consumption (for chronic pancreatitis).

Gallstones – Gallstones are the most common cause of pancreatitis in the United States and other Western countries. Biliary tract disease accounts for 35–50% of all cases. Despite aggressive and intensive early management, the mortality rate is approximately 10%. Although the exact mechanism of pancreatitis due to gallstones is not completely understood, most investigators believe that obstruction of the major papilla by the stone causes reflux of bile into the pancreatic duct. The presence of bile in the pancreatic duct appears to initiate a complex cascade effect that results in pancreatitis.

Drugs – Drugs are a well-recognized cause of pancreatitis. These drugs may be divided into those that have a definite association, and those with probable association with the development of pancreatitis. These include azathioprine, sulfonamides, corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and antibiotics such as tetracycline.

Pancreas Divisum – The most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas, pancreas divisum, occurs in approximately 10% of the population, and results from incomplete or absent fusion of the dorsal and ventralducts during embryological development. Recent clinical trials have supported the concept that obstruction of the minor papilla may cause acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis in a subgroup of patients with pancreas divisum.

Microlithiasis – Recent studies have shown that a significant number of patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis will have microlithiasis.

Metabolic Causes – Hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia may lead to acute pancreatitis. In patients with hyperlipidemia, triglyceride levels are usually greater than 2,000mg/dl. It is believed that lipase present in the pancreatic capillaries metabolizes the levels of triglyceride generating toxic free fatty acids.

Alcohol – Alcohol is the second leading cause of acute pancreatitis in Western countries. In many patients, however, chronic pancreatitis is already established. Alcohol is believed to cause acute pancreatitis by several mechanisms.

Other – There are multiple other causes of pancreatitis that include scorpion stings, poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides, ascaris worms in the pancreatic duct, and trauma


Most people who have acute or chronic pancreatitis experience upper abdominal pain as their primary symptom. Some of those who have chronic pancreatitis may show inflammation on imaging scans, but otherwise may show no symptoms.

Other symptoms of pancreatitis may include:

  • Pain that extends from your the side around to the back
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Abdominal tenderness
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Bloating with a distended (swollen) stomach
  • Hiccups

People who have chronic pancreatitis may also experience steatorrhea, or fatty stools that give off a foul odor. Steatorrhea can be a sign of malabsorption. This means that patients do not get all of the essential nutrients because the pancreas doesn’t secrete enough digestive enzymes to break down your food.

Pain associated with pancreatitis may last from a few minutes to several hours at a time. In severe cases, discomfort from chronic pancreatitis could become constant. The pain is likely to increase after eating or when lying down.


Medications – Medical treatment is usually focused on relieving symptoms and preventing further aggravation to the pancreas. Certain complications of either acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis may require surgery or a blood transfusion.

  • Drugs – Pancreatitis can cause severe pain. The doctor may prescribe painkillers in order to control that pain. The patient may also receive antibiotics to treat or prevent infection in some cases. The doctor may also prescribe enzyme supplements, such as pancrelipase (Lipram, Pancrease, Viokase), to help the body absorb food. In some cases, doctors may prescribe steroids to treat autoimmune pancreatitis.
  • Intravenous (IV) fluids – As the body devotes energy and fluids to repair the pancreas, the patient may become dehydrated. For this reason, the patient is given extra fluids through a vein in the arm during the hospital stay.

Surgery and Other procedures – Different types of surgical procedures may be necessary depending on the cause of the pancreatitis. People who have pancreatic necrosis (tissue death) almost always require surgery to remove damaged and infected tissue. Surgery may also be required to drain an abscess. For chronic pancreatitis with pain that will not respond to treatment, doctors may need to remove a section of the pancreas. If the pancreatitis is a result of gallstones, a procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be necessary. In ERCP, a specialist inserts a tube-like instrument through the mouth and down into the duodenum to access the pancreatic and biliary ducts.

Alternative Treatment

Nutritional Supplements

Grape Seed Extract – Grape seed extract is a very strong anti-inflammatory but it is also one of the most powerful antioxidants on earth and one of the few that will cross the blood-brain barrier. According to research grape seed extract causes cancer cells to die but more importantly grape seed extract helps relieve nausea and pain that are two rotten symptoms of pancreatitis

Curcumin puts out the fire of inflammation and so helps control pain. Curcumin is a powerful pain reliever and one of the best pancreatitis supplements. It fights pancreas inflammation,. Curcumin is also a very strong antioxidant which seems to inhibit cancer growth by actually causing cancer cells to die.

Vitamin C is another antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and essential nutrient. Vitamin C can do so many things, in combination with grape seed extract and curcumin. Those three pancreatitis supplements in combination are extremely powerful.

Vitamins, Minerals and Antioxidants are important pancreatitis supplements simply because with pancreatitis patients can often suffer from malabsorption which simply means they do not absorb the nutrients from food. Extra vitamins, minerals and antioxidants may be very helpful in providing more energy and all-around better health.

Digestive Enzymes are important pancreatitis supplements simply because the pancreas produces digestive enzymes and the less the pancreas has to work the better. If the pancreas has sustained a large amount of damage it may not produce enough enzymes to digest thefood and of course this makes an enzyme supplement mandatory.

Chromium picolinate mineral helps maintain stable blood sugar levels so the pancreas doesn’t have to work overtime secreting insulin to move sugar out of the blood into cells.

Calcium & Magnesium work hand in hand to promote the health of all glands.

Vitamin B Complex helps relieve stress on the pancreas, and vitamins B-3 and B-5 in particular are important for fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

Dandelion root is an herbal supplement that is commonly used to help treat pancreatitis. Studies suggest that dandelion root helps stimulate and strengthen your pancreas and may improve the function of other organs, too, including the kidneys, spleen and stomach.

Omega 3 fatty acids helps in treating High Triglycerides, inflammation, gallstones. It also reduce the chance of a recurrent episode if you have a history of pancreatitis.

Milk thistle is one of those cholagogue herbs, which have been trusted by herbalists for over thousands of years to treat a damaged, liver, pancreas and stomach. Silymarin, a type of flavonoid has given this herbaceous plant the power to deal with liver damages. Being used as a liver tonic, the extracts of milk thistle help to neutralize all sorts of liver damages, other than protecting the liver as a whole. Other than that, milk thistle is also a source of vitamin E, which helps to treat and regenerate the cells of the liver and pancreas, which get damaged as a result of pancreatitis.

Licorice root has been used as a traditional Chinese herb for treating an array of health disorders, which also includes pancreatitis. Deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) is one of the major bioactive compounds found in licorice, which can be the major reason behind the herb’s effectiveness for treating pancreatitis.

Reference –

February 7, 2017

Lynch syndrome (LS) is a condition that can run in families. It is also known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). LS doesn’t cause any symptoms itself. But people with LS have an increased risk of developing bowel cancer, cancer of the womb and some other cancers. If the family has a history of developing these cancers at a young age (under 50), it is possible that people have the altered gene that causes LS.

It is estimated that around 1 in 440 Americans possess a gene mutation associated with Lynch syndrome. The condition is most commonly associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer, accounting for around 3-5% of all cases. Women with Lynch syndrome, however, are also at 40-60% greater risk of endometrial cancer – a cancer that begins in the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium.

Some people with Lynch syndrome may also develop sebaceous adenomas, which are noncancerous tumors of an oil-producing gland in the skin.

Lynch syndrome is caused by a change in a gene that normally functions to protect a person from getting cancer. If you have a parent or sibling with Lynch syndrome, you are potentially at risk of developing Lynch syndrome. If you have been diagnosed with Lynch syndrome, your children are at risk. When a parent carries a change known as a mutation, in one of the Lynch syndrome genes, they have one working and one non-working copy of the gene. Each child will have a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation.

Not everyone with Lynch syndrome will develop bowel cancer. A person who inherits a Lynch syndrome mutation has around 30-50% chance of developing cancer (risks vary depending upon which gene is affected) unless preventative measures are taken. Developing bowel cancer at a young age is not uncommon.


Lynch Syndrome is caused by an abnormality in one of four mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). These are the genes responsible for correcting mistakes that occur in genes when body cells divide.   More recently an error in a gene called EPCAM has been identified and this also stops the MSH2 gene working properly meaning it can’t fix up those “spelling” mistakes.

Nearly every cell in our bodies contains two copies of each gene and genes are the “instruction manuals” for building and running the body. DNA is the genetic material within each cell that contains instructions for every chemical process in the cells of the body. As cells grow and divide they make copies of their DNA and it is common for minor mistakes to occur.   Normally the mismatch repair genes recognize these mistakes and repair them, similar to the “spell check” function on your computer. However, people who inherit a fault in one of the four mismatch repair genes lack the ability to repair these minor mistakes. An accumulation of these mistakes may eventually lead to the development of a cancer.    


Men and women can inherit a gene mutation associated with Lynch syndrome from either their mother or father. People with one of these mutations can also pass it on to their children. If one parent has the mutation in 1 of the 2 copies of a Lynch syndrome gene, a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation. This also means there is a 50% chance that a child will not inherit the gene mutation.

Healthcare professionals use certain criteria to determine if a Lynch syndrome gene mutation may be present in a family. These are referred to as the Amsterdam criteria.

  • At least 3 family members have colorectal cancer or another cancer related to Lynch syndrome. At least 1 of these family members is a first-degree relative (parent, sibling or child) of the other 2 family members.
  • At least 1 family member was diagnosed with cancer before age 50.
  • Cancer occurs in at least 2 generations in a row.
  • FAP has been ruled out.


People with Lynch syndrome may have –

  • Colon cancer that occurs at a young age, especially before age 45
  • A family history of colon cancer that occurs at a young age
  • A family history of endometrial cancer
  • A family history of other related cancers, including ovarian cancer, kidney cancer, stomach cancer, small bowel cancer, liver cancer or other cancers

Those with Lynch syndrome have a 70 percent chance of developing colon cancer by age 70. Colon cancer patients with Lynch syndrome have an estimated 40 percent risk of developing a second primary colon cancer within seven years of being diagnosed after the first tumor. Women with Lynch syndrome have a 40 percent to 60 percent estimated lifetime risk of developing endometrial cancer.

Lynch syndrome may also increase a person’s risk for cancers of the stomach, ovary, urinary tract, hepatobiliary tract, brain, small intestine, skin and pancreas.


Surgery is recommended to remove the colon (subtotal colectomy) if colon cancer is detected in someone with a known diagnosis of Lynch syndrome due to the high risk for second primary colon cancers. Surgery to remove the uterus and ovaries before cancer develops (prophylactic) is a consideration for women who have Lynch syndrome and have completed childbearing. Individuals with Lynch syndrome should be monitored every one or two years with examinations of the colon (colonoscopy) beginning at age 20-25 or 2 to 5 years before the youngest age that a family member was diagnosed, whichever is earlier. Prophylactic removal of the colon is not usually recommended because colonoscopy is usually effective in detecting colon cancer at an early stage or at preventing colon cancer entirely.

Genetic counseling is recommended for affected individuals and their family members. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

Alternative Treatment

Calcium & Vitamin D – There is evidence that higher calcium and vitamin D intake lowers the risk of developing colon cancer.

Folic Acid – In observational studies, low folate has been linked to increased risk of colon cancer. However, some data suggest that high intake of folate may have a paradoxical effect, raising the risk of developing colorectal cancer in some individuals.

Selenium – In several studies, selenium status was lower in those with adenomas and colon cancer versus controls. One study of selenium-deficient patients with a history of adenomas showed that repletion of selenium corrected both selenium status and activity of glutathione peroxidase in the colonic mucosa.

Curcumin, the collective term for the 3 curcuminoids that give Turmeric (Curcuma longa) its distinct yellow color, may be the most well-characterized chemopreventative agent from any spice. Spices are collectively composed of a myriad of chemopreventative phytochemicals, including phenolics, terpenoids, and flavonoids

Omega-3 fatty acids – Omega 3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have potent anti-inflammatory effects. There is also evidence for direct protective effects regarding proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis in colon cancer cells.

Garlic (Allium sativum) – The anticarcinogenic effects of garlic are thought to be derived primarily from organosulfur compounds, including the odiferous diallyl sulfide that gives garlic its distinct smell.106 Garlic and its constituents have been well proven to lessen CRC carcinogenesis, reduce proliferation, block angiogenesis, induce differentiation and apoptosis, inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 and squelch free radical.

Probiotics – The interplay between dietary components and the microbiota of the colon is thought to have a integral role in carcinogenic processes of the colonic epithelium, as well as overall health and disease. The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is a product of microbiota metabolism of fiber from the diet, and butyrate is involved in colonic homeostasis of colonic crypts. Many other compounds formed from microflora may influence the inflammatory environment of the colon, systemic immune function, and the presence of bioactive compounds locally that may promote or inhibit carcinogenic processes.

Green tea components such as polyphenols (eg, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) can affect colorectal carcinogenic processes.


Reference –

February 7, 2017

Leaky Gut also known as ‘Intestinal Permeability’ is a condition in which the lining of the small intestine becomes damaged, in turn causing undigested food particles, toxic waste products and bacteria to leak through the intestines and flood the bloodstream. The foreign substances entering the blood can cause an autoimmune response in the body including inflammatory and allergic reactions such as migraines, irritable bowel, eczema, chronic fatigue, food allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and more.

With a leaky gut, damaged cells in the intestine are unable to produce the enzymes needed for proper digestion. Hence, it5 becomes difficult for the body to absorb essential nutrients, causing hormonal imbalance and a weakened immune system.

In more scientific language, an increase in permeability of the intestinal mucosa to luminal macromolecules, antigens and toxins associated with inflammatory degenerative and/or atrophic mucosal damage. Once in the blood stream the immune system is the last line of defense to deal with these substances and it will eventually get overwhelmed if a Leaky Gut is not rectified.

Leaky Gut Syndrome is a very common condition in this day and age. It is the cause of much or our modern autoimmune illness: IBS, Chrons disease, allergies, asthma, food sensitivities, chemical sensitivities, arthritic conditions, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, addison’s disease, lupus, fibromyalgia, thyroiditis. It is an illness that depicts our modern times.


In most cases, leaky gut is caused by the diet. Certain foods, like gluten, soy and dairy, act as foreign invaders of the gut. When these foods are consumed, the body goes into war, i.e, producing antibodies, as a result of a triggered immune response that includes diarrhea, headaches, fatigue and joint pain.

Leaky gut can also be caused by medications including antibiotics, steroids or over-the-counter pain relievers like aspirin and acetaminophen, which can irritate the intestinal lining and damage protective mucus layers. This irritation can start or continue the inflammation cycle that leads to intestinal permeability.Alcohol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen are well-known irritants of the bowel lining.

The key and most common cause of Leaky Gut is Candida. Candida is a yeast-fungal organism that grows roots like a plant. These roots grow into and through the intestinal tract looking for food. These roots break through the intestinal lining and cause the leaky gut.

Our intestinal lining replaces itself approximately every 24 hours. This means that every cell that the lining is composed of is digested, and a new one grows to take its place. All this activity means the gut uses more blood when it is resting than any other organ but it is also the first to lose its blood supply when in a fight or flight situation, which is what stress is. If you have a lot of stress then your gut will always be starved for blood and the lining will be impaired.

Zinc is a critical piece of maintaining a strong intestinal lining. A deficiency of the vitamin can lead to the mucosal lining losing strength and becoming more permeable. There are studies that show that supplementing with Zinc when it is deficient can dramatically improve intestinal lining integrity

Certain conditions and treatments

The following conditions and treatments can also damage the seals in the bowel lining:

  • Inflammatory bowel diseases – such as Crohn’s disease
  • Infections of the intestines – such as salmonella, norovirus and giardiasis
  • Coeliac disease
  • Chemotherapy medicines
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Radiotherapy to the abdomen (tummy)
  • Immunosuppressants (medicines that weaken the immune system)
  • Tystic Fibrosis
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Sepsis
  • Complicated Surgery

Factors that worsen Leaky Gut –

  • Alcohol and caffeine, which irritate the gut wall, this includes cokes (diet and regular), chocolate, coffee, and cocoa.
  • Contaminated foods, E. coli and other bacteria’s can develop due to poor food handling.
  • Chemicals found in processed and fermented foods (dyes and preservatives), wine, vinegar, soy sauce, tofu, etc.
  • A diet high in refined sugars and other carbohydrates (e.g. candy, cookies, sodas, processed foods and white bread).
  • Foods contaminated by parasites (pork, chicken, fresh water and hatchery fish).
  • Antibiotic use-this causes an overgrowth of fungi (yeast) in the gut due to the immune suppression that occurs.
  • Ingestion of animal products that have been given hormonal and antibiotic treatments.
  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).


  • The long-term net result of the leaky gut is the likely development of autoimmune disease where the body attacks its own tissues. There are some 80 recognized autoimmune diseases. These include:
  • Lupus
  • Alopecia areata
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Polymyalgia
  • Multiple sclerosis rheumatica
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Celiac disease
  • Vitiligo syndrome
  • Thyroiditis
  • Vasculitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Urticaria (hives)
  • Diabetes
  • Psoriasis

Physicians are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of the GI tract in the development of autoimmune diseases. In fact, researchers now estimate that more than two-thirds of all immune activity occurs in the gut. Allergies can develop when the body produces antibodies to the undigested proteins derived from previously harmless foods. These antibodies can get into any tissue and trigger an inflammatory reaction when that food is eaten. Depending on where this inflammation occurs in the body—in the joints, brain, lungs, blood vessels or gut—a variety of chronic illnesses can develop as a result.

Other disorders that are associated with leaky gut include eczema, psoriasis, pancreatic insufficiency, candidiasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), multiple chemical sensitivities and even heart disease. Leaky gut can aggravate existing conditions as well, for it can give rise to such symptoms as:

  • Fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Fever
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin rashes
  • Memory deficit
  • Shortness of breath

Leaky gut syndrome can also cause malabsorption andthus deficiencies of many important nutrients—vitamins, minerals and amino acids—due to inflammation and thepresence of potent toxins. This malabsorption can alsocause gas, bloating and cramps, and can eventually lead to such complaints as fatigue, headaches, memory loss, poor concentration and irritability.


Medications – Band-aid treatment with corticosteroids, prescription broad-spectrum antibiotics, and immunosuppressive drugs may be prescribed for acute episodes of pain, bleeding or severe inflammation of the gut. However, there is no conventional treatment that resolves a leaky gut.

Alternative treatment

Probiotics – Probiotics are the most important supplement to take because it helps replenish good bacteria and crowds out bad bacteria. They play essential roles that not only fight off the bad bacteria, but also reduce inflammation in the gut.

Digestive Enzymes– Digestive enzymes are critical to properly breaking down the foods we eat. They are found naturally in the raw form of foods to help break them down. The plant based enzymes will break down food into very small particles before it leaves the stomach, preventing large undigested molecules from irritating the intestinal lining and increasing nutritional uptake. They also work through the intestines acting as garbage collectors by removing toxins, bacteria, and damaged cells of the mucosal lining. The whole process gives the gut a clean slate of healthy cells to rebuild with. While the leaky gut permeability remains, they do the same garbage collecting in the bloodstream if they are passed through the intestinal lining. The bromelain and papain enzymes or pancreatic animal tissues (porcine, bovine, lamb) and aloe vera juice are shown to reduce inflammation in the gut lining and throughout other tissues in the body, allowing the immune system and the liver some reprieve.

Nutritional Supplementing – The conditions that lead to leaky gut can also cause mal-absorption and improper digestion, both of which are going to leave you with nutritional deficiencies. First and foremost: supplementing with a good multi-vitamin, large amounts of vitamin D, and Zinc will help the intestinal lining return to normal

L-Glutamineis critical for any program designed to heal leaky gut. Glutamine is an essential amino acid that is anti-inflammatory and necessary for the growth and repair of your intestinal lining. L-glutamine benefits include acting as a protector: coating your cell walls and acting as a repellent to irritants.

Licorice Root (DGL)is an adaptogenic herb that helps balance cortisol levels and improves acid production in the stomach. DGL supports the body’s natural processes for maintaining the mucosal lining of the stomach and duodenum. This herb is especially beneficial if someone’s leaky gut is being caused by emotional stress.

Quercetin has also been shown to improve gut barrier function by sealing the gut because it supports creation of tight junction proteins. It also stabilizes mast cells and reduces the release of histamine, which is common in food intolerance. New studies have also shown its effectiveness in healing ulcerative colitis.

Essential fatty acids– Milledflax, flax seed oil, evening primrose oil, borage oil, olive oil, fish oil, black current seed oil; soluble fiber – pysillium seed husks and powder, apple and citrus pectin, the rice derived gamma oryzanol.

Plant Extract – Kudzu, various high chlorophyll containing green drinks like spirulina, chlorella and blue-green algae, burdock, slippery elm, Turkish rhubarb, sheep sorrel, licorice root, ginger root, goldenseal, bismuth and bentonite.

Colostrum – Colostrum has been clinically proven to heal leaky gut and increase immune response.


Reference –

February 7, 2017

Lactose is the carbohydrate naturally found in all kinds of milk, including human milk. It can also be used as an ingredient in some foods. Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest the main sugar found in milk and other dairy products. This is caused by a deficiency of lactase, the enzyme responsible for metabolizing lactose in the small intestines.

To digest lactose the body contains the enzyme lactase. Lactase splits the lactose into two smaller sugars, glucose and galactose. These smaller sugars are absorbed by your body to provide energy.

When a person doesn’t have enough of the lactase enzyme to break down all of the lactose, they are said to have lactose maldigestion. The undigested lactose passes through the small intestine to the colon. In the colon, natural bacteria ferment the lactose and produce acids and gas.

This combination of events can cause the symptoms of lactose intolerance, which may include abdominal pain, bloating or diarrhoea. These warning signs of lactose intolerance can arise anywhere from 30 minutes to 2 days after the consumption of dairy products, and can range from mild to severe. Most immediate reactions are caused by the body not having the enzymes to digest the lactose sugar and the intestines contract as a reaction. If people have had an ongoing intolerance more extreme headaches, migraines or bloating can occur over the course of up to two days from these undigested particles entering your body, especially if people have a leaky gut.

Lactose maldigestion does not necessarily result in symptoms of lactose intolerance. Most people with lactose maldigestion can eat some lactose-containing foods, such as dairy, without feeling unwell.

Many parents confuse the terms lactose intolerance and milk allergy. While they may share similar symptoms, they are entirely different conditions. Lactose intolerance is a digestive problem, while milk allergy involves the immune system. The child can be tested for milk allergy or lactose intolerance.


Lactose intolerance can happen to children or adults. Here are some common causes of this condition –

  • Lactose intolerance often runs in families (hereditary). In these cases, over time a person’s body may make less of the lactase enzyme. Symptoms may occur during the teen or adult years.
  • In some cases the small intestine stops making lactase after an injury or after a disease or infection.
  • Some babies born too early (premature babies) may not be able to make enough lactase. This is often a short-term problem that goes away.

An illness that involves or injury the small intestine may cause less of the lactase enzyme to be made. Treatment of these illnesses may improve the symptoms of lactose intolerance. These may include –

  • Surgery of the small intestine
  • Infections in the small intestine (This is most often seen in children)
  • Diseases that damage the small intestines, such as celiac sprue or Crohn’s disease
  • Babies may be born with a genetic defect and are not able to make any of the lactase enzyme.

Risk Factors

In the United States, some ethnic and racial populations are more likely to have lactose intolerance than others, including African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, American Indians, and Asian Americans. The condition is least common among Americans of European descent.

  • Increasing age – Lactose intolerance usually appears in adulthood. The condition is uncommon in babies and young children.
  • Premature birth – Infants born prematurely may have reduced levels of lactase because the small intestine doesn’t develop lactase-producing cells until late in the third trimester.
  • Diseases affecting the small intestine – Small intestine problems that can cause lactose intolerance include bacterial overgrowth, celiac disease and Crohn’s disease.
  • Certain cancer treatments – If some have received radiation therapy for cancer in the abdomen or have intestinal complications from chemotherapy, people have an increased risk of lactose intolerance.

Foods high in lactose

The most common high-lactose foods include –

  • Milk, milkshakes and other milk-based beverages
  • Whipping cream and coffee creamer
  • Ice cream, ice milk, sherbet
  • Cheese
  • Butter
  • Puddings, custards
  • Cream soups, cream sauces
  • Yogurt
  • Foods made with milk

Other foods that MAY contain lactose in smaller quantities include –

  • Bread and baked goods
  • Milk chocolate
  • Salad dressings and sauces
  • Breakfast cereals and cereal bars
  • Instant potatoes, soups, rice and noodle mixes
  • Lunchmeats (other than kosher)
  • Candies and other snacks
  • Mixes for pancakes, biscuits, and cookies
  • Margarine
  • Organ meats (such as liver)
  • Sugar beets, peas, lima beans

When buying food, read the ingredients on food labels carefully. Ingredients derived from milk that contain lactose include:

  • Whey
  • Caseinates
  • Nougat
  • Cheese
  • Milk by-products
  • Dry milk solids
  • Lactose
  • Butter
  • Curds
  • Yogurt
  • Dry milk powder


A symptom is something the patient feels and reports, while a sign is something other people, such as the doctor detect. For example, pain may be a symptom while a rash may be a sign.

Typically, a person with lactose intolerance will experience symptoms after consuming milk or some dairy product that contains lactose. Symptoms may include –

Flatulence – a buildup of excessive gas in the intestinal tract; this can lead to farting and burping.

  • Diarrhea – an hour or two after consuming lactose the individual can suddenly become desperate to go to the toilet.
  • Bloated feeling
  • Stomach ache and abdominal pains
  • Tummy rumbles
  • Nausea
  • Dehydration – if symptoms are severe


If a person comes from a dairy-friendly society and tries to avoid lactose-containing products, he/she will have to make sure their move does not result in malnutrition. Milk contains calcium, proteins, vitamins A, B12 and D – all important nutrients for good health.


Cutting lactose out of the diet is an option, but patients should make sure they aren’t depriving themselves of calcium and vitamin D, Balzora said.

Over-the-counter pills or drops that contain lactase can be taken before meals to help alleviate or eliminate symptoms. For example, Lactaid pills or Lactaid milk allow many people to process dairy products without any difficulty, Balzora said. Some people find that taking probiotics can help them digest lactase better, but Lactaid is really the standard, Balzora said.

Note the following dietary considerations in patients with lactose intolerance –

  • Patients should read labels on commercial products.
  • Patients should avoid or reduce intake of lactose-containing foods.
  • Most patients who are lactose intolerant can ingest as much as 240 mL of milk without an exacerbation of their symptoms.
  • Whole milk and chocolate milk may be better tolerated than skim milk.
  • Certain medications and foods contain hidden lactose, such as breads, margarine, salad dressings, and candies.

Alternative Treatment

Probiotics are living organisms present in your intestines that help maintain a healthy digestive system. Probiotics are also available as active or “live” cultures in some yogurts and as supplements in capsule form. They are sometimes used for gastrointestinal conditions, such as diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome. They may also help your body digest lactose. Probiotics are generally considered safe and may be worth a try if other methods don’t help.

Lactase supplements are a small pill that is taken with foods containing lactose. They are useful as a temporary measure or when you are eating large quantities of dairy foods, but may not be so good for the long term. Adding the enzymes to milk a few hours before drinking it helps break down the lactose. You can get them from health food stores.

Acidophilus milks are made by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus to cold milk. Many of the studies that have looked at acidophilus milks for lactose digestion have found no improvement. Researchers have speculated that it may be because the acidophilus products used in the studies did not contain enough live acidophilus.

Vitamin K plays a major role in calcium absorption and bone health, but its benefits do not end there. It also helps brain function, metabolism, and helps regulate hormones. This fat-soluble vitamin is stored in the liver, and proper levels can be disrupted by antibiotic use, certain prescription cholesterol medications, and by IBS and leaky gut.

Gentian – This family of some 180 plants, originating in Europe, helps to tone the digestive system and alleviate symptoms of dyspeptic complaints.

Pau d’arco – The bark of this South American tree has long been used to treat candida infections and reinstate good gut flora.

St Mary’s thistle – Used as a traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years, it protects the liver and is often used to support the body’s detoxification processes.

Liquorice – Used in both conventional and naturopathic medicine to aid digestion. However, liquorice also increases blood pressure, so people with hypertension should seek medical advice before taking it.



Reference –,P00388/

February 7, 2017

Intestinal ischemia also called visceral or mesenteric ischemic syndrome, is the term used to describe the result of a variety of disorders that cause insufficient blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract. Such ischemic injuries can manifest with symptoms ranging from a mild bout of short-lived abdominal pain, to bloody diarrhea or a more serious situation that may require surgery and even end in death.

The three major abdominal blood vessels that may become blocked include the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery or inferior mesenteric artery. Usually two or three of these arteries must be narrowed or blocked to cause intestinal ischemic syndromes.

In general terms, ischemia either can be localized to a relatively small part of the small intestine or colon, or it may be more widespread and involve significant portions of both.

The time course of the ischemic event also may vary and be acute (new), chronic (long-standing), or recurrent.

An ischemic problem may be caused by an interruption in blood passage through an artery (a blood vessel that brings blood to the intestines) or vein (a blood vessel that returns blood from the intestines to the heart). There are several ways in which arterial blood supply to the intestines can be restricted: an embolus (a migrating blood clot that can form a blockage), a thrombus (a stationary clot attached to the wall of a blood vessel that can prohibit blood passage), or a so-called non-occlusive state (spasm of a blood vessel, but without permanent obstruction, that restricts blood flow through an artery).

Venous problems also may result in intestinal ischemia, although less commonly than arterial causes. The most common cause of ischemia from venous obstruction is a thrombus which interferes with the return of blood flow from the intestines, produces intestinal congestion, and results in intestinal swelling, and occasionally bleeding.


Acute Intestinal Ischemia: The arteries supplying oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to your intestines can become narrowed from atherosclerosis in the same way that coronary (heart) arteries become narrowed in heart disease. Mesenteric ischemia can develop if the narrowing or blockage become severe.

Another cause of acute ischemia is a blood clot. If a blood clot forms or travels to the narrowed artery, the blood supply to the intestine is suddenly interrupted. The tissues below the blocked vessel will be starved for oxygen-rich blood and die. This event is a life-threatening condition.

Chronic Intestinal ischemia is characterized by narrowing of the blood vessels that supply the intestines with nutrients and oxygen-rich blood. This narrowing also is caused by atherosclerosis (buildup of fatty matter and plaque on the blood vessel walls). Chronic mesenteric ischemia is more common in women than men, and occurs after age 60.

A potentially dangerous complication of chronic mesenteric ischemia is the development of a blood clot within a diseased artery, causing blood flow to be suddenly blocked (acute mesenteric ischemia).

Risk Factors

  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • High lipid values (cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides)


Early signs and symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia include –

  • Severe abdominal pain, concentrated in one area of the abdomen
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Bloody stools
  • History of chronic atrial fibrillation or cardiovascular disease

Chronic –

The organs of the gastrointestinal system are responsible for the digestion of food. Therefore, decreased blood supply to these organs cause symptoms related to eating or after-meal digestion, including –

  • Abdominal pain after meals
  • Weight loss
  • Fear of eating or change in eating habits due to post-meal pain
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • History of cardiovascular disease (such as peripheral arterial disease, stroke, coronary artery disease or heart attack)


  • Death of intestinal tissue – If blood flow to the intestine is completely and suddenly blocked, intestinal tissue can die (gangrene).
  • Perforation – A hole through the wall of the intestines can develop. This results in the contents of the intestine leaking into the abdominal cavity, causing a serious infection (peritonitis).
  • Scarring or narrowing of the colon – Sometimes the intestines can recover from ischemia, but as part of the healing process the body forms scar tissue that narrows or blocks the intestines.
  • Death


Surgery – Emergency surgery may be performed to remove the blood clot (embolectomy) or bypass the blocked vessel and restore blood flow to the intestines. The surgeon may use autologous bypass grafts (patient’s own blood vessels) or artificial grafts. In some cases, the surgeon may need to remove a portion of the intestine if tissue death has occurred.

In Chronic situation surgery may be performed to remove plaque (endarterectomy), bypass the blocked vessel to restore blood flow to the intestines, or remove or repair an aneurysm. The surgeon may use autologous bypass grafts (patient’s own blood vessels) or artificial grafts during the bypass procedure.

Medication – Anticoagulant medications, such as Coumadin (warfarin – a blood-thinner), to reduce the risk of blood clots.

Angioplasty and stenting – A balloon catheter is used to attempt to open the artery and a small stent is placed inside the artery to keep it open.

Alternative Treatment

Quercetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Quercetin has been shown to enhance intestinal barrier functions in human intestinal cells.88 Mast cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucosal inflammation and increased IP. Quercetin helps to control intestinal inflammation by inhibiting histamine release from human intestinal mast cells.

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has antioxidant and free radical–scavenging properties with cytoprotective effects on cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Oral supplementation with GBE has been shown to reduce macroscopic and histological damage to the colonic mucosa in vivo and to significantly decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis.

Vitamins C and E plays an essential roles in protecting intestinal mucosal cells from oxidative damage and free-radical pathology.

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant, detoxifier, and precursor for glutathione synthesis on oral administration in humans. NAC and glutathione quench free radicals that can contribute to oxidative damage of the intestinal mucosa.

L-glutamine is an important energy source for cells of the intestinal mucosa and has been shown to be conditionally essential for normal mucosal structure and function. Glutamine appears to be required for normal production of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the intestines.

N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG) is a naturally occurring aminoglycan found in large concentrations in intestinal mucus, secretory IgA, and other immunoglobulins. Intestinal mucus plays a critical role in protecting the host by providing a mechanical and immunological barrier against toxins, antigens, and bacteria in the gut lumen.

Pancreatic enzymes have optimal activity in the neutral to alkaline pH range and are unstable in acidic conditions.

Probiotics Intestinal microflora have been described as a postnatally acquired organ comprised of a large diversity of bacteria that perform a range of important functions for the host. Probiotics are orally administered microorganisms that help to maintain or restore beneficial intestinal microflora and prevent or treat gastrointestinal disorders and related systemic conditions.

Psyllium seed and flaxseed fiber each demonstrate benefits of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in humans. It helps in intestinal health.

Boswellia is an excellent herb helping to reduce immune cells that promote inflammation while increasing the number of immune cells that inhibit inflammation.

Chamomile is a popular herb best known for it’s calming properties. It helps to calm muscle spasm in stomach and has anti-inflammatory properties helping to reduce symptoms of ischemia.

Reference –

February 7, 2017

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a group of idiopathic chronic inflammatory intestinal conditions. The two main disease categories the term covers are Crohn’s disease (CD) which can affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus and ulcerative colitis (UC) which is limited to the colon. CD and UC are inflammatory bowel diseases that cause chronic inflammation and damage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or Gut.

The Gut is responsible for digestion of food, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes. The inflammation caused due to IBD, impairs its ability to function properly leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, weight loss and fatigue.

IBD affects an estimated 1.6 million Americans. This chronic disease tend to run in families and they affect males and females equally. Although, anyone can be affected by IDB, Caucasians are more likely than other ethnic groups to have IBD. The diseases are especially prevalent in Jews of European descent (Ashkenazi Jews). African Americans and Hispanics in the United States are increasingly affected.

To understand IDB, it becomes important to understand the meaning and difference between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Corhn’s Disease – CD can affect any part of the Gut, from the mouth to the anus. It most commonly affects the end of the small intestine (the terminal ileum) where it joins the beginning of the colon. Crohn’s disease may appear in “patches,” affecting some areas of the gut while leaving other sections completely untouched. In CD, the inflammation may extend through the entire thickness of the bowel wall. This narrows the passageway for food that is being digested. The area of the intestine that has narrowed is called a stricture. Also, deep ulcers may turn into tunnels, called fistulas), that connect different parts of the intestine. They may also connect to nearby organs, such as the bladder or vagina, or connect to the skin. And as with ulcerative colitis, ulcers may cause a hole to develop in the wall of the intestine.

Ulcerative Disease – UC is limited to the large intestine (colon) and spectrum. The inflammation occurs only in the innermost layer of the lining of the intestine. It usually begins in the rectum and lower colon, but may also spread continuously to involve the entire colon. The disease causes swelling and tiny open sores, or ulcers, to form on the surface of the lining. The ulcers can bleed and produce pus. In severe cases, ulcers may weaken the intestinal wall so much that a hole develops. This causes the contents of the large intestine, including bacteria, spill into the abdominal (belly) cavity or leak into the blood causing a serious infection and requires emergency surgery.

Causes of IBD

Three characteristics define the causes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) – genetic predisposition; environmental triggers; and an altered response to gut micro biome.

  • Gut Micro biome

The intestine harbors nearly 100 trillion commensal bacteria that exert crucial effects on overall human health. Genetic studies on gut microbes have shown that they have a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The micro biome is a key factor in establishing a balance between immune responses and tolerance to inflammation in the intestinal environment; that balance is required to maintain gut homeostasis. Studies indicate that dysbiosis (that is, abnormal micro biota composition) and decreased complexity of the gut microbial ecosystem are common features in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Whether such changes are a cause or a consequence of the disease remains to be elucidated.

  • Genetics

Studies and scientific evidence strongly suggest the role of heredity in IBD. Studies have shown that 5% to 20% of affected individuals have a first-degree relative (parent, child, or sibling) with one of the diseases. Children of parents with IBD are at greater risk than the general population for developing IBD.

Numerous genes and genetic mutations connected to IBD have been identified.


  • Environmental Triggers
    • Smoking – Active smokers are more likely to develop Corhn’s disease, as compared to non smokers. Surprisingly, the risk of developing ulcerative colitis is decreased in current smokers compared with people who have never smoked. The numerous potential harmful health effects of smoking (e.g., cancer, heart disease) largely outweigh any benefits of smoking for people with ulcerative colitis.
    • Pollutants & Toxic metals – Constant exposure to pollutants in non-organic pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides sprayed on foodstuffs used in the diet. Contamination of food and water by polluting heavy metals. Aluminum particularly is becoming omnipresent in our environment. The biggest source is in our soils and water. All these factors affects out gut leading to IBD.
    • Diet – IBD is not triggered by eating any one particular food, but for some people, certain foods can aggravate symptoms. The role of diet in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis is important, although, more research is needed to better understand how diet may impact these diseases.
    • Antibiotics – Antibiotics may increase the risk of developing IBD.
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen)
    • Appendicitis – Children who undergo an appendectomy (removal of the appendix) are less likely to develop ulcerative colitis later in life, but may be at a higher risk of developing Crohn’s disease. However, the benefits of appendectomy in patients with severe acute appendicitis certainly outweigh the risks.

Symptoms of IBD

IBD is a chronic, intermittent disease. Symptoms range from mild to severe during relapses and may disappear or decrease during remissions i.e. symptoms depend on the segment of the intestinal tract involved.

  • Symptoms of inflammatory damage of the digestive tract.
    • Diarrhea – Stool may contain mucus or blood, nocturnal diarrhea & incontinence
    • Constipation
    • Pain and rectal bleeding with bowel movement
    • Abdominal cramps and pains
    • Tenesmus – need to strain harder to produce only a small amount of stool during bowel movements.
    • Nausea and vomiting
  • Symptoms associated with UC and CD in some cases:
    • Fever
    • Loss of appetite
    • Weight loss
    • Fatigue
    • Night sweats
    • Growth retardation
    • Primary amenorrhea
    • Anemia

The symptoms of IBD can come and go. People may experience periods of severe symptoms (flare-ups), and go through long periods when they have few or no symptoms at all (remission).

Risk of Other Diseases

IBD patients are at a slight greater risk for developing some other diseases, including colon cancer, blood clots, and a liver disease called primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).


  • Medications

There are five main categories of medications used to treat IBD –

  • Aminosalicylates – These are anti-inflammatory compounds that contain 5-aminosalicylic acid. These include sulfasalazine, balsalazide, mesalamine, and olsalazine. These drugs help to decrease inflammation at the wall of the intestine. They are used primarily to treat ulcerative colitis, both to reduce symptoms and maintain remission, but may not be as effective in treating Crohn’s disease.
  • Immunomodulators – This type of medications modifies the activity of the immune system so that it cannot cause ongoing inflammation. It includes azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), and methotrexate. They are generally used to maintain remission in people who have not responded to other medications or who have only responded to steroids.
  • Corticosteroids These include prednisone, prednisolone, and budesonide, which affects the body’s ability to begin and maintain an inflammatory process. Its side effects are infection, bone loss, weight gain, cataracts, skin fragility, sleep disturbance, and mood swings.
  • Antibiotics – The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and metronidazole have benefit for people with Crohn’s disease that affects the colon or the area around the anus. They may be used when infections, such as abscesses, occur.
  • Surgeries

Some people with these conditions develop complications that require surgery. Around 60-75% of people with Crohn’s disease will require surgery to repair damage to their digestive system and treat complications of the condition.

  • Integrative Treatment.The integrative treatment of IBD is highly individualized and addresses the “whole” person with a focus on improving quality of life. Integrative practitioners consider a wide variety of factors when prescribing a course of treatment based on the Comprehensive Diagnostic Work-up.

    This may include – 

    • Vitamins & Minerals – People with IBD may develop vitamin or mineral deficiencies that require supplementation for a variety of reasons, including Crohn’s disease that affects the small intestine, certain drugs or surgeries, and other aspects of the diseases. Supplements of Vitamin B-12, Folic acid, iron and minerals are suggested to the patients.
    • Fish Oils – Omega-3 fatty acids—found in fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, herring, and sardines as well as some nuts and green vegetables—provide an anti-inflammatory effect. They have numerous health benefits, including helping to relieve the joint pain of rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory disorder). It has been suggested that they may also help to relieve the intestinal inflammation of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
    • Probiotics – The gut contains “good” bacteria, which help with digestion and offer protection against “bad” bacteria. Consumption of antibiotics results in insufficient supply of good bacteria. Probiotics are live bacteria that are similar to beneficial bacteria that normally reside in the intestines. Under normal circumstances, beneficial bacteria keep the growth of harmful bacteria in check. If the balance between good and bad bacteria is thrown off, causing harmful bacteria to overgrow, diarrhea and other digestive problems can occur. Probiotics are used to restore the balance of these “good” bacteria in the body. They are available in the form of dietary supplements (capsules, tablets, and powders) or foods (yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, miso, tempeh, and some juices and soy beverages).
    • Prebiotics – Unlike probiotics — which are beneficial live bacteria that you consume — prebiotics are natural compounds found in plants, such as artichokes, that help fuel beneficial intestinal bacteria.
    • Aloe Vera Supplements – Aloe vera is widely used topically for wound healing and pain relief. It is also thought to have anti-inflammatory properties.
    • Turmeric – Curcumin, a compound found in the spice turmeric, has been combined with standard ulcerative colitis therapies in clinical trials.
    • Bio field therapies – This type of therapy affects the energy fields that allegedly surround and penetrate the body. These energy fields have not yet been scientifically measured. Bio field therapies involve the application of pressure or the placement of hands in or through these energy fields. Examples include Reiki, qi gong, and therapeutic touch.
    • Biodetoxification Programme – The Center’s Biodetoxification Program utilizes clinical procedures that safely reduce the body’s burden of toxic chemicals, including chemicals stored following occupational, accidental, and/or chronic airborne exposures. Chemicals bind to human tissues on the basis of their lipophilic properties — meaning literally “attracted to fats.”

Treating and curing the disease is a two way process. Together with your co-operation and our treatment method, we have been successfully able to create success stories.

February 7, 2017

Hirschsprung’s disease (also called colonic aganglionosis) is a blockage of the large intestine due to improper muscle movement in the bowel. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present from birth. Hirschsprung’s disease affects one in every 5,000 babies.

Normally, the muscles in the bowel squeeze rhythmically to push faeces (poo) through to the rectum. In Hirschsprung’s disease, the nerves that control these muscles (ganglion cells) are missing from part of the bowel. This means that faeces cannot be pushed through the bowel in the usual way.

Sometimes the ganglion cells are missing throughout the whole large intestine and even parts of the small intestine. When the diseased section of the intestine reaches or includes the small intestine, it is called long-segment disease. When the diseased section includes only part of the large intestine, it is called short-segment disease.

The length of the affected part of bowel varies from child to child. Most commonly the rectum and/or sigmoid colon (the last parts of the large bowel) are affected. The entire colon is affected only very rarely.

The problems a child will experience with Hirschsprung’s disease depend on how much of the intestine has normal nerve cells present.


HD develops before a child is born. Normally, nerve cells grow in the baby’s intestine soon after the baby begins to develop in the womb. These nerve cells grow down from the top of the intestine all the way to the anus. With HD, the nerve cells stop growing before they reach the end.

It is unclear why the nerve cells stop growing; however, there is no evidence that it is caused by the mother’s actions or activities while she is pregnant.

Hirschsprung’s disease causes about 25% of all newborn intestinal blockages. It occurs five times more often in males than in females. Hirschsprung’s disease is sometimes linked to other inherited or congenital conditions, such as Down syndrome.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase the risk of Hirschsprung’s disease include –

Having a sibling who has Hirschsprung’s disease – Hirschsprung’s disease can be inherited. If you have one child who has the condition, future biological children also might be at risk.

Being male – Hirschsprung’s disease is more common in males.

Having other inherited conditions – Hirschsprung’s disease is associated with certain inherited conditions, such as inherited heart problems and Down syndrome. It may also be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IIB — a syndrome that causes noncancerous tumors in the mucous membranes and adrenal glands (located above the kidneys) and cancer of the thyroid gland (located at the base of the neck). Roughly a third of children who have Hirschsprung’s disease have other abnormalities.


Symptoms of HD usually show up in very young children. Sometimes, however, they don’t appear until the teenage years or adult life. Symptoms that may be present in newborns and infants include –

  • Difficulty with bowel movements
  • Failure to pass meconium shortly after birth
  • Failure to pass a first stool within 24 – 48 hours after birth
  • Infrequent but explosive stools
  • Jaundice
  • Poor feeding
  • Poor weight gain
  • Vomiting
  • Watery diarrhea (in the newborn)

Symptoms in older children –

  • Constipation that gradually gets worse
  • Fecal impaction
  • Malnutrition
  • Slow growth
  • Swollen belly


  • Inflammation and infection of the intestines (enterocolitis) may occur before surgery, and sometimes during the first 1 – 2 years afterwards. Symptoms are severe, including swelling of the abdomen, foul-smelling watery diarrhea, lethargy, and poor feeding.
  • Perforation or rupture of the intestine
  • Short bowel syndrome, a condition that can lead to malnourishment and dehydration


A procedure called serial rectal irrigation helps relieve pressure in (decompress) the bowel.

The abnormal section of colon must be taken out with surgery. Most commonly, the rectum and abnormal part of the colon are removed. The healthy part of the colon is then pulled down and attached to the anus.

Sometimes this can be done in one operation. However, it is often done in two parts. A colostomy is performed first. The other part of the procedure is done later in the child’s first year of life.

Pull through Surgery – For this operation, the end of the bowel that does not have nerve cells is completely or almost completely removed, and bowel that does contain nerve cells is attached to the anal opening. After surgery, stool comes from the normal anal opening. In some cases the pull through surgery can be done in a single operation, but if the child is very ill or the bowel is very dilated, it is more common to create a temporary ostomy.

Ostomy – This is a connection between the inside of the bowel and the skin on the abdomen. Colostomy means the connection is to the colon, whereas an ileostomy is a connection between the end of the small bowel and the skin. A small plastic bag is attached to the opening to collect stool.

Alternative Treatment

Sodium Supplements – Some patients, particularly those whose entire colon is affected by Hirschsprung disease, may need an ileostomy for many months and sometimes years The ileostomy can cause the body to lose sodium, something that the child needs in order to absorb nutrients from what they eat. For that reason, children with an ileostomy are often prescribed sodium supplements by their doctor. Doctors will also monitor the child’s growth carefully to make sure that they are getting the nutrients they need to develop normaly.

Vitamins – Prevents constipation.

Omega 3′s for brain health

Reference –

February 7, 2017

Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is a spiral-shaped bacterium that grows in the mucus layer that coats the inside of the human stomach. About 40% of people in the US have H. pylori in their stomach so it is very common. In nearly nine out of 10 people who have H. pylori, it does not cause any problems.

It can damage the tissue in the stomach and the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum). This can cause redness and soreness (inflammation). In some cases it can also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in the upper digestive tract.

  1. pylori attacks the lining that protects the stomach. The bacterium makes an enzyme called urease. This enzyme makes the stomach acids less acidic (neutralizes them). This weakens the stomach’s lining. The stomach cells then have greater risk of being hurt by acid and pepsin, strong digestive fluids. That can lead to sores or ulcers in the stomach or duodenum.

The H. pylori bacteria can also stick to stomach cells. The stomach can’t protect itself very well. The area gets red and swollen (inflamed). It can also get the stomach to make more acid. Health experts don’t fully understand how.

The spiral shape of the bacteria and the way they move allow them to penetrate the stomach’s protective mucous lining, weakening it and making the stomach more vulnerable to gastric acids. It can also stimulate excess stomach acid, inflaming the stomach and causing gastritis. Infection with the bacteria is associated with a very slightly increased risk of stomach cancer over time. However, the risk of getting stomach cancer is small and no-one knows if treating H. pylori actually reduces that risk.

People who do have H. pylori almost always catch it in childhood, probably from other children or family members. Once someone picks up H. pylori, it stays in the stomach throughout life unless it is treated with particular antibiotics. H. pylori is actually becoming less common and nowadays it is unusual for children to catch it, even if someone else in the family has it. People living in the US today who have H. pylori are unlikely to pass it on and do not need to take any special measures to avoid giving it to others.


Health experts don’t know for sure how H. pylori infection is spread. They believe the germs can be passed from person to person by mouth, such as by kissing.

It may also be passed by having contact with vomit or stool. This may happen if a person –

  • Eat food that was not cleaned or cooked in a safe way
  • Drink water that is infected with the bacteria

Risk Factors

  1. pylori is often contracted in childhood. Risk factors for H. pylori infection are related to living conditions in the childhood, such as –
  • Living in crowded conditions – A person is at a greater risk of H. pylori infection if he or she lives in a home with many other people.
  • Living without a reliable supply of clean water – Having a reliable supply of clean, running water helps reduce the risk of H. pylori.
  • Living in a developing country – People living in developing countries, where crowded and unsanitary living conditions may be more common, have a higher risk of H. pylori infection.
  • Living with someone who has an H. pylori infection – If someone they live with has H. pylori, he or she is more likely to also have H. pylori.


Most people with H. pylori don’t have any symptoms. Having H. pylori infection doesn’t necessarily mean that the patient has ulcers or develop stomach cancer. It’s not clear why some infected people develop ulcers and others don’t.

When H. pylori does cause symptoms, they are usually symptoms of gastritis or of peptic ulcer disease. The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is gnawing or burning abdominal pain, usually in the area just beneath the ribs. This pain typically gets worse when the stomach is empty and gets better when a person eats, drinks milk or takes an antacid.

Other symptoms may include –

  • Heartburn
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Bloating
  • Burping
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting (vomit may be bloody or look like coffee grounds)
  • Black, tarry stools

If a person is having black stool or vomiting blood, he or she should seek urgent medical advice or attend A&E.


Complications associated with H. pylori infection include –

  • Ulcers – H. pylori can damage the protective lining of the stomach and small intestine. This can allow stomach acid to create an open sore (ulcer). About 10 percent of people with H. pylori will develop an ulcer.
  • Inflammation of the stomach lining – H. pylori infection can irritate the stomach, causing inflammation (gastritis).
  • Stomach cancer – H. pylori infection is a strong risk factor for certain types of stomach cancer


Medications –

  • H2-blockers – These are used to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach by blocking the hormone histamine. Histamine helps to make acid.
  • Proton pump inhibitors – These help to keep the stomach from making acid. They do this by stopping the stomach’s acid pump from working.
  • Stomach-lining protectors – These medicines protect the stomach lining from acid and help kill bacteria.

The appropriate treatment for the patients will depend on a number of factors, including –

  • Their age, health and medical history
  • The severity of infection or stomach damage
  • Their ability to tolerate certain medicine or treatments
  • Their treatment preference

Alternative Treatment

Licorice is a traditional ulcer treatment in Indian, Chinese, and Kampo medicine. Although more evidence is needed, the existing tests on animals and humans are promising. This seems to work by preventing the bacteria from attaching to the stomach, so it works best in the early stages of infection.

Probiotics are sources of the types of “good” bacteria and yeast normally found in the body’s microbiome. This includes species of lactobacillus, acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and the yeast saccharomyces boulardii.

Mastic Gum – This is a resin that is sourced from pistachio tree and it is used as a food ingredient in the Mediterranean region. Studies suggest that mastic is active against Helicobacter pylori, which could explain its therapeutic effect in patients with peptic ulcers.

Berberine is a plant alkaloid isolated from the roots and bark of several plants including golden seal, barberry, coptis chinensis and Yerba mansa. Berberine-containing plants have been used medicinally in ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, and are known to have antimicrobial activity against a variety of organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, and chlamydia. Currently, the predominant clinical uses of berberine include bacterial diarrhea, intestinal parasite infections, and ocular trachoma infections.

Edible Herbs – Here is a list of edible herbs that are thought to help control H. Pylori bacteria in the body. They can conveniently be added to flavor any foods you may be preparing.

  • Thyme
  • Ginger
  • Turmeric
  • Cayenne pepper
  • Oregano
  • Fenugreek
  • Curry leaves
  • Cinnamon
  • Garlic

Scutelleria baicalensis/ Baikal skullcap can work as an antibiotic. Note that Baikal skullcap can slow blood clotting, so if the patients are taking aspirin, a blood thinner, or have a clotting disorder, or are having surgery, talk to a your doctor before taking this supplement. Baikal skullcap can also affect blood sugar levels and lower blood pressure.

Korean red ginseng has shown anti- H. pylori activity in lab animals. Please be aware that red ginseng is different than American ginseng and has a wide variety of uses. While many regard ginseng as effective in increasing mental performance and sexual function, it also lower blood sugar, increase heart rate and can either raise or lower blood pressure.


Reference –