February 7, 2017

Lifestyle of a person should be a main concern when it comes to yeast infection recovery, and the best way for it is ‘Yeast Eradication’.

Yeast is a part of a normal and healthy gut flora. But it becomes a cause of numerous health issues, if overgrown. The over grown yeast in the gut can become a cause of gastrointestinal discomfort, fatigue, joint pain, weight gain, rashes, acne, white coating on the tongue and intense cravings for alcohols, sugars and starches. It is highly recommended to directly kill the yeast to get rid of all the possible health effects.

Because of the “whole body” stress that the yeast can cause, especially in serious cases, it is crucial that the treatment approach should be thorough. A haphazard approach is destined to fail, as Yeast will find a way to multiply when given the smallest opportunity. Yeast eradication is the most effective treatment.

Yeast eradication involves – 

  • Killing excess yeast in the intestines and eliminating its breeding grounds by cleaning the bowel. It re-establishes a healthy balance of flora through supplementation with friendly bacteria.
  • To stop the body from feeding the Candida by helping the person to adopts a diet that starves the yeast while nourishing your body.
  • By eliminating the mycelial form of yeast that has migrated to other organs in the body (systemic Candida overgrowth) and detoxifies the Candida’s waste products.
  • To strengthen the body and help the immune system rebuild itself.
  • Killing Excess Yeast in the Bowel – The health of the bowel affects the entire health of the body. The Gut flora of the body is made up of delicately balanced community of micro-organisms. Studies suggest that many immunological dysfunctions are related to an imbalance in intestinal flora. When harmful intestinal bacteria (pathogens) outnumber good bacteria, health is compromised.

Healthy bowel flora is important for the maintenance of intestinal pH, strong digestion, and the production of vitamins, hormones, and immune-modulating substances. Pathogens like Candida, on the other hand, produce toxic byproducts in the intestines. These poisons can be absorbed into the bloodstream, causing a condition known as “auto-intoxication.” It is universally accepted that auto-intoxication is the underlying cause of a large number of symptoms and illnesses.

  • Starving Candida – Sugars, yeast, most fermented foods, and anything quickly converted into sugar, (i.e., simple starches) are “SUPERFOOD” for Candida. To ensure a complete recovery from Candida, it is important to refrain from foods that nourish it.
  • Eliminating Systemic Candidiasis – It is not unusual for someone suffering from “Systemic Candidiasis” (the mycelial fungal form), to have problems in many different organ systems. The mycelial form of Candida has the ability to migrate throughout the body. The fungi grow root-like extensions called mycelia. These mycelia serve to help the Candida travel through tissue in the body so that it can invade any organ. The mycelia also allow the Candida to anchor itself into tissue, weakening the cellular structures. The Candida then sucks nutrients from the host’s tissue. It emits enzymes that actually digest human cells.
  • Strengthening the Body and Rebuilding the Immune System – Immune weakness is frequently a contributing factor to the development of Candidiasis or the result of it. Candida yeast releases waste material (like acetaldehyde and alcohol), and the blood, liver, and lymphatic system can become overburdened. When the body is congested with waste material, the immune system becomes overworked in its attempt to provide protection from these toxins and cannot remain efficient at preventing other health problems. Candidiasis is often an overlooked component of many other health problems, including colds, flu, arthritis, viral infections, immune diseases, cancer, and AIDS.

The yeast Eradication treatment includes –

Cleansing – Psyllium, Caproil, and Bentonite – These three substances pass through the intestines together, they thicken into an absorbent, cleansing gel. The movements of the intestines turn this gel round and round, forcing it against the sides of the intestines, where, in effect, it scrubs Candida away and soaks up toxins for easy elimination.

  • Psyllium acts as an internal scrubbing brush. Its bulking action forces the Caproil and Bentonite against the sides of the colon. Psyllium’s absorptive ability also complements Charcoal’s toxin-attracting properties.
  • Caproil acts like a detergent on the Psyllium brush, killing yeast on contact.
  • Castor oil help break up waste in the intestines and liver.
  • MSM addresses parasites as well as Candida. Yeast also lives IN mucus and MSM is a good mucus stripper.
  • Bentonite soaks up dead yeast and toxins and helps the PSYLLIUM pull this debris from the body. Hydrated Bentonite is a super absorbent liquid day preparation, scientifically proven to absorb (attract) toxins, bacteria, and viruses. Combining its powerful properties with PSYLLIUM’s absorptive power and bulking action ensures that wastes are quickly eliminated.
  • Flora Rebalancing (Bacteria, Probiotics, Soil-based Organisms, Colostrum) – Lactobacillus is a group of friendly microorganisms known to transform milk into yogurt and cheese. They are useful in helping maintain the delicate balance of fungus and bacteria in the intestinal tract.

Nutritional Supplements

  • Vitamins & Minerals – Biotin is a B vitamin which is essential for the metabolism of fats and proteins. It is believed to play some role in preventing candida from converting into its invasive form.
  • Balanced free-form amino acids.
  • Antioxidants such as Vitamin E, A, balanced B, L-Lysine and Pantothenic acid. Vitamins A and C help with the infection resulting from fungal micro punctures made into the intestinal walls.
  • Copper and zinc work together. Imbalanced copper levels directly tie to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Candida. Copper serves as a natural antifungal. People with Candida, parasites or Epstein-Barr virus commonly have an excess of copper and mercury in their body.
  • Studies suggest that germanium improves many illnesses including Candida. Organic germanium increases tissue oxygenation.

Diet – Diet plays a large role in the development of Candidiasis, and so diet modification has to play a role in recovery. An anti-Candida diet is essential, whether the condition is mild or severe. This does not mean that the person will never eat his/her favourite foods again, but at least during the program the person may have to incorporate substitutions in some of the meals. The foods that promote yeast growth need to be eliminated or reduced, and more healthy, immune boosting foods need to be introduced to strengthen health and immunity.

The Foods to Avoid – Any foods containing fruit, fruit juice, sugar, or even natural sweeteners (except stevia) will help Candida to multiply. Fermented foods like vinegar, miso, cheeses, and alcohol, can also aggravate the condition by nourishing the yeast. Some foods that are “yeast-like” can cause sensitivities because one is sensitized to the Candida (e.g., mushrooms, yeast extract, and baker’s or nutritional yeast). Starchy foods such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, white rice, breads (even yeast-free breads are starchy), and pasta are quickly converted into sugars.

Starchy foods need to be avoided at the beginning of the program, but can gradually be reintroduced as you improve. Processed foods, preservatives, and refined or cooked unsaturated oils, weaken the body and should be avoided. Mucus-producing foods such as dairy foods (including cheese), refined flours, and meat should be restricted as they promote sluggish digestion and will slow the elimination of wastes from the bowel. The following should be reduced –

  • Chocolate
  • Citrus
  • Corn
  • Food coloring and additives
  • Fruit punches
  • Milk
  • Processed and packaged foods
  • Soft drinks
  • Sugar
  • Wheat
  • Yeast
  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Coffee
  • Eggs
  • Oats
  • Pork
  • Rice
  • Tea
  • Tomatoes
  • White potatoes

The Foods to include – A detoxifying diet rich in a variety of fibre, essential fatty acids, vegetables, legumes, white meats, alternative grains (in moderation), and complementary vegetarian proteins (beans combined with grains) is the most supportive to this program. Healthy oils like flax oil (always served unheated), which are rich in essential fatty acids, can support the healing process and can also help to conquer the yeast.

Stevia extract is a very special sweetener and a lifesaver for those with Candida. It contains no glucose and, therefore, does not nourish yeast at all. Satisfying the sugar craving with stevia can prevent many a regretful sugar binge caused by Candida urgings. This amazing extract is approximately 40 times sweeter than sugar (1 tsp. = approx. 1 cup sugar). It comes in a powder (which can be dispensed in a salt shaker) or a liquid and can be heated or dissolved in liquids. It is so versatile it can even be used to sweeten baked goods. There is a broad range in the quality of Stevia.

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

The digestive system is responsible for providing the body with energy and nutrients. The digestive organs break down food into small nutrient molecules that are used to supply the body’s energy needs, and also absorb the raw materials that are required for growth and repair. Mechanical digestion, such as chewing, breaks down food by physical action; chemical digestion uses digesting agents called enzymes to break down food particles even further, which occurs throughout the system – even in the mouth.

Stomach acid or hydrochloric acid (HCl), is a very powerful digestive agent, and much more important than you realize.

HCl’s important functions include –

  • Breaking down proteins into the essential amino acids and nutrients your body needs in order to stay healthy.
  • Stimulating your pancreas and small intestines to produce the digestive enzymes and bile necessary to further breakdown the carbohydrates, proteins and fats you eat.
  • Preventing disease by killing pathogenic bacteria and yeast normally present in food.
  • As you age, your stomach acid tends to decrease anyway. Add a poor diet of processed foods and you may find that you have both digestive and immune problems.

The condition of both low and excess stomach acid is highly uncomfortable and irritating.

The digestive system secretes enzymes, intrinsic factors and gastric acids – necessary for proper digestion of food in the stomach to break down and digest the food we consume. Gastric acids consist of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, potassium chloride and protein-digesting enzyme pepsin, with a pH of 1-2 in the lumen of the stomach. Secretion is induced by the smell, sight or the feel of food in the mouth. The stomach, gallbladder, and pancreas work together as a team to perform the majority of the digestion of food.

When the secretion of gastric acid increases or decreases in the stomach it leads to various stomach-related problems – resulting in discomfort, burning sensation, gastric ulcers and basic gastritis. Only about 1 in 10 people with acid problems actually do have too much stomach acid – the rest actually has insufficient stomach acids (hypochlorydia) or a different problem altogether such as a food intolerance.

Causes

Several factors can cause stomach acid imbalance –

  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies can cause a vicious cycle of low stomach acid and malnutrition because they are all needed for stomach acid production. If any of these are lacking in the diet, hypochlorhydria can develop. In turn, hypochlorhydria affects the body’s ability to absorb the vitamins and minerals it needs to produce the proper levels of HCl. The lack of proper nutrient absorption sets the stage for the vicious cycle of low stomach acid output and chronic nutrient deficiencies.
  • Chronic stress can impair the body’s ability to produce the proper amount of HCl.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption can damage the cells that produce HCl in the stomach.
  • The presence in the stomach of a common bacteria, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), can impair the body’s ability to produce the proper amount of HCl.
  • HCl production decreases with age. The average 60-year-old produces only one-fourth as much HCl as a 20-year-old.
  • Insufficiency of stomach acid leads to indigestion, leaving food undigested in the stomach, where bacteria and other micro-organisms start to grow. This imbalance can hinder your body’s ability to absorb nutrients, even if you eating healthy foods.
  • Long-term deficiency of nutrients can cause more serious health issues, mostly arising from weak immune system. All other symptoms that are associated with low stomach acid arise due to the presence of undigested foods in the stomach.

Symptoms

There are a number of symptoms that can be apparent with a stomach acid imbalance. Some of the symptoms of stomach acid imbalance are provided below –

  • Bloating
  • Belchin
  • Pain or tenderness in the middle of the abdomen
  • Excessive feeling of fullness
  • Fungal infections, such as, candida
  • Indigestion
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Food allergies
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Undigested foods in stools
  • Heartburn
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies
  • Fatigue
  • Autoimmune disorders

Complications

  • Obesity, slow metabolism and inability to lose weight
  • Chronic inflammation
  • High blood pressure
  • Weight gain, obesity and diabetes
  • Bladder and kidney conditions, including kidney stones
  • Weakened immunity
  • Premature aging
  • Osteoporosis, weak or brittle bones, fractures and bone spurs.
  • Joint pain, aching muscles and lactic-acid buildup
  • Low energy and chronic fatigue
  • Mood swings
  • Slow digestion and elimination
  • Yeast/fungal overgrowth

Treatment

Conventional and prescription medications used to treat stomach acid imbalance may deplete nutrients or interfere with nutrient absorption. Following is a list of conventional medicines that may be used and the nutrients they may deplete:

  • Antacids – Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia, Amphojel, Tums, Mylanta, Maalox. Products used to neutralize stomach acid.
  • Histamine H2 antagonists – Tagamet, Zantac, Pepcid. A group of medications that block H2 receptors to control stomach acid production.
  • Products to relieve indigestion, gas, and bloating – CharcoCaps, Gas-X, Mylicon, Phazyme, Pepto-Bismol.
  • Proton pump inhibitors – Prilosec, Prevacid, Protonix, Aciphex. A group of medications that stop stomach acid production by shutting down a system in the stomach known as the proton pump.

Alternative Treatment

Protein – HCI initiates the digestion of protein in the stomach by converting pepsinogen into the proteolytic enzyme, pepsin. Once formed, pepsin acts to break proteins into smaller peptides that can be absorbed by the small intestine. Without adequate gastric secretions, incompletely digested macromolecules can be absorbed into the systemic circulation.

Carbohydrates and Fats – HCl supports the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins A and E by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile into the small intestine.

Vitamins and Minerals – HCl also aids in the absorption and assimilation of vitamins and minerals such as folic acid, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and iron, by increasing their bioavailability and effecting their release from food.

Betaine Hydrochloric Acid is a nutritional supplement that is used to restore normal gastric acid.

Pepsin helps to assist digestion.

Peppermint is used to aid the various processes of digestion due to its antibacterial and gastric-acid-promoting effects. Peppermint also aids digestive function by combating gas, increasing the flow of bile, and healing the stomach and liver.

Gentian (Gentiana lutea) – The bitter principles of the dried root of Gentiana lutea have been used in Europe as a digestive aid for centuries, especially in Swedish bitters. Gentian roots were historically used topically to treat skin tumors, and internally to treat fever and diarrhea.

Digestive Enzymes helps to break down hard-to-digest foods and eases indigestion, bloating, and gas.

Probiotics – Helps bring balance to your digestive tract with friendly bacteria. Promote regularity, enhance your immune system, support healthy intestinal flora, and soothe stomach upset.

Basil- Can be made into a tea by mixing one ounce basil leaves with a pint of water and simmering for twenty minutes.

Ginger– Can be made into a tea by grating one ounce of fresh ginger and simmering ten minutes in a pint of water. Ginger should always be added to meat since it aids digestion of the meat.

Dill– An infusion of dill can be taken three times a day for upset stomach. An infusion can be made by placing one ounce of dill in a pint of boiling water and steeping in an air tight container.

Aromatherapy – Essential oils are the distilled essence of plants and herbs. They are very potent and provide many therapeutic benefits. Various essential oils may be applied to acupressure points on the feet or back to support your gastrointestinal system.

Stress Reduction Techniques – Chronic stress can have a negative impact on our overall health. In relation to our gastrointestinal system, it can put our sympathetic nervous system into overdrive. This causes our digestion to be sluggish. Stress management is the key to feeling better and staying healthy.

 

Reference –

http://primaldocs.com/members-blog/natural-solutions-increase-stomach-acid-improve-digestion/

http://www.dragonfly360.net/health-issues/constipation/

https://www.womentowomen.com/digestive-health/digestion-gi-health-the-truth-about-ph-balance/

http://www.rosaceagroup.org/The_Rosacea_Forum/showthread.php?26129-stomach-acid-imbalance-and-stress!

http://www.stopthethyroidmadness.com/stomach-acid/

http://gallbladderattack.com/stomachacid.shtml

http://bodyecology.com/articles/low_stomach_acid_symptoms.php

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

Obesity is defined as an excessively high amount of body fat (adipose tissue) in relation to lean body mass. There is evidence that obese children and adults are at greater risk of short-term and long-term health consequences.

An obese person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative effect on their health. If a person’s bodyweight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he or she is considered obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight. If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese.

Obesity causes or exacerbates many health problems, both independently and in association with other diseases. In particular, it is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease (CHD), an increased incidence of certain forms of cancer, respiratory complications (obstructive sleep apnoea) and osteoarthritis of large and small joints.

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Over two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and one in three Americans is obese. The prevalence of obesity in children has increased markedly. Obesity has also been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and the incidence of obesity nearly doubled from 1991 to 1998.

Who is at Risk?

  • In women, overweight and obesity are highest among non-Hispanic Black women (about 82 percent), compared with about 76 percent for Hispanic women and 64 percent for non-Hispanic White women.
  • In men, overweight and obesity are highest among Hispanic men (about 82 percent), compared with about 74 percent for non-Hispanic White men and about 70 percent for non-Hispanic Black men.
  • Children also have become heavier. In the past 30 years, obesity has tripled among school-aged children and teens. About 1 in 6 American children ages 2–19 are obese. The survey also suggests that overweight and obesity are having a greater effect on minority groups, including Blacks and Hispanics.

Causes

Lifestyle and Behavior Factor – Healthy behaviors include a healthy diet pattern and regular physical activity. Energy balance of the number of calories consumed from foods and beverages with the number of calories the body uses for activity plays a role in preventing excess weight gain.

Other reasons for not being active include: relying on cars instead of walking, fewer physical demands at work or at home because of modern technology and conveniences, and lack of physical education classes in schools.

People who are inactive are more likely to gain weight because they don’t burn the calories that they take in from food and drinks. An inactive lifestyle also raises your risk for coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, colon cancer, and other health problems.

Environmental Factor – People and families may make decisions based on their environment or community. For example, a person may choose not to walk or bike to the store or to work because of a lack of sidewalks or safe bike trails. Community, home, child care, school, health care, and workplace settings can all influence people’s daily behaviors. Therefore, it is important to create environments in these locations that make it easier to engage in physical activity and eat a healthy diet.

Lack of Sleep – People who do not sleep enough are at a higher risk of becoming obese, according to a research. The ‘epidemic’ of obesity is paralleled by a ‘silent epidemic’ of reduced sleep duration with short sleep duration linked to increased risk of obesity both in adults and in children. These trends are detectable in adults as well as in children as young as 5 years

Genetic Factor – Genetic changes in human populations occur too slowly to be responsible for the obesity epidemic. Nevertheless, the variation in how people respond to the environment that promotes physical inactivity and intake of high-calorie foods suggests that genes do play a role in the development of obesity.

Other Factors – Some illnesses may lead to obesity or weight gain. These may include Cushing’s disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Drugs such as steroids and some antidepressants may also cause weight gain. The science continues to emerge on the role of other factors in energy balance and weight gain such as chemical exposures and the role of the microbiome.

A health care provider can help you learn more about your health habits and history in order to tell you whether behaviors, illnesses, medications, and/or psychological factors are contributing to weight gain or making weight loss hard.

Endocrine disruptors, such as some foods that interfere with lipid metabolism. The molecular mechanism through which fructose (a type of sugar) in beverages may alter lipid energy metabolism and cause fatty liver and metabolic syndrome.

Symptoms

Weight gain usually happens over time. Most people know when they’ve gained weight. Some of the signs of overweight or obesity include –

  • Clothes feeling tight and needing a larger size.
  • The scale showing that you’ve gained weight.
  • Having extra fat around the waist.
  • A higher than normal body mass index and waist circumference

The BMI is a statistical measurement derived from your height and weight. Although it is considered to be a useful way to estimate healthy body weight, it does not measure the percentage of body fat. The BMI measurement can sometimes be misleading – a muscleman may have a high BMI but have much less fat than an unfit person whose BMI is lower. However, in general, the BMI measurement can be a useful indicator for the ‘average person’.

Complications

  • Diabetes
  • Heart Disease
  • Hypertension

Other risks

In addition to diabetes, heart disease and hypertension, obesity is related to dozens of serious health problems. For instance –

  • A growing body of evidence shows links between maternal health conditions -— including obesity, chronic diseases — and increased risks before, during and after childbirth.
  • Approximately 20 percent of cancer in women and 15 percent of cancer in men is attributable to obesity.
  • An estimated 24.2 percent of kidney disease cases among men and 33.9 percent of cases among women are related to overweight and obesity.
  • Almost 70 percent of individuals diagnosed with arthritis are overweight or obese.
  • Both overweight and obesity at midlife independently increase the risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
  • Other mental health conditions.

Treatment

  • Diet, exercise, and behavioral modification should be included in all obesity management approaches for body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m 2 or higher.

Medications – A variety of over-the-counter and prescription weight loss drugs are available. Some people find these drugs help curb their appetites. Studies show that patients on drug therapy lose around 10 percent of their excess weight, and that the weight loss plateaus after six to eight months. As patients stop taking the medication, weight gain usually occurs. Weight loss drugs, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating obesity, include:

  • Beta-methyl-phenylethylamine (Fastin) — This is a stimulant that increases fat metabolism.
  • Orlistat (Xenical) — This drug works by blocking about 30 percent of dietary fat from being absorbed. Alli is a lower-dose, over-the-counter formula of the same medication.
  • Phentermine — Phentermine, an appetite suppressant, has been available for many years. It is half of the “fen-phen” combination that remains available for use. The use of phentermine alone has not been associated with the adverse health effects of the fenfluramine-phentermine combination.
  • Sibutramine (Meridia) — This is an appetite suppressant approved for long-term use.

Surgeries – In patients with morbid obesity associated with comorbidities, bariatric surgery is the only available therapeutic modality associated with clinically significant and relatively sustained weight loss. Well-performed bariatric surgery, in carefully selected patients and with a good multidisciplinary support team, substantially ameliorates the morbidities associated with severe obesity.

  • Roux-en-Y procedure (gastric bypass) – Permanently reduces the size of the stomach; vomiting is the most common side effect.
  • Gastric banding – An adjustable silicone band is placed around the stomach, decreasing the amount of food that can be eaten. The band can be adjusted or removed.
  • Laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy – The stomach is restricted by stapling and dividing it vertically and removing more than 85% of it. The stomach that remains is shaped like a very thin banana.

Behavior Modification – The goal of behavior modification therapy is to change your eating and exercise habits to promote weight loss. Examples include:

  • Setting realistic weight loss goals — short term and long term.
  • Recording your diet and exercise patterns in a diary.
  • Identifying high-risk situations and avoiding them.
  • Rewarding specific actions, such as exercising for a longer time or eating less of a certain type of food.
  • Adopting realistic beliefs about weight loss and body image.
  • Developing a support network, including family, friends and co-workers, or joining a support group that can help you focus on your goal.

Alternative Treatment

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) – 5-HTP is thought to reduce hunger cravings by boosting serotonin levels in the central nervous system, which may reduce appetite and lessen food cravings.

Fiber – Fiber may help lower insulin levels (insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood) and help you feel fuller.

Calcium – Calcium may play an important role in fat burning. Population studies show that higher dietary calcium levels are associated with lower BMIs.

Zinc – Zinc may increase lean body mass and reduce or stabilize the amount of fat. The reason may be that zinc increases levels of leptin, a hormone in the body that helps you feel full. Zinc can interact with certain medications, including Cisplatin, and some antibiotics.

Pyruvate – Pyruvate is a substance that occurs naturally in the body, where it is converted to lactic acid. There is some evidence that it may help reduce body fat, possibly by increasing the body’s metabolic rate.

Vitamin D and Calcium – Studies found that in postmenopausal women, those who took calcium and vitamin D supplements were less likely to gain small to moderate amounts of weight than those who took placebo. Calcium can interfere with certain medications, including some antibiotics and thyroid medications. Calcium must be in balance with other minerals and electrolytes in the body, such as magnesium and phosphate.

Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) – This substance, extracted from the fruit Garcinia cambogia, is similar to citric acid (found in oranges and citrus fruits). HCA stops carbohydrates from being stored as fat, and some animal tests indicate HCA can suppress appetite.

Chitosan – Chitosan is a fiber-like supplement made from the shells of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab. While some studies show that chitosan (in addition to a low-calorie diet) reduces weight, it is unclear whether the supplement itself, the low-calorie diet, or a combination of both led to the weight loss. Other studies show mixed results. Chitosan may have a blood-thinning effect, and therefore can interact with blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin) and aspirin.

Glucomannan – Glucomannan is a kind of insoluble fiber that appears to reduce blood sugar levels and may help promote weight loss. People with diabetes should not take glucomannan without their doctor’s supervision. Glucomannan may interfere with the absorption of several medications.

Psyllium – Psyllium, a kind of soluble fiber, may reduce hunger cravings by making you feel full. Adding psyllium and other sources of fiber into your diet may aid weight loss.

Guggul – A common ingredient in several Ayurvedic medicines used to treat obesity. Studies suggest that overweight people who take these Ayurvedic remedies lose slightly more weight compared to those who do not take them. Guggul can cause mild diarrhea and nausea, and may interact with the following medications: blood-thinning drugs (anticoagulants), birth control pills, thyroid hormone, tamoxifen, and estrogens.

Green tea – Green tea extract may boost metabolism and help burn fat.

Cayenne or capsaicin – Preliminary evidence indicates that capsaicin (the substance that makes chili peppers taste hot) may reduce hunger and help the body burn fat, particularly when eating a high-fat diet.

Hoodia – A number of media reports on hoodia have suggested it could be an effective weight loss supplement.

 

Reference –

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/treatment

http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/causes.html

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obesity/basics/causes/con-20014834

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Obesity/Pages/Treatment.aspx

http://www.medicinenet.com/obesity_weight_loss/page2.htm

http://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/obesity.htm

http://www.webmd.com/diet/obesity/obesity-treatment-overview

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776037/

http://treatment.hpathy.com/homeo-medicine/homeopathy-obesity/

http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/natural-medicine/alternative/alternative-medicines-for-obesity.htm

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

Nutrition is the cornerstone to good health and well-being.  A Nutritionist is a licensed, regulated practitioner who follows a science-based approach to nutrition. Nutrition counseling aims at to providing the knowledge, support, encouragement and accountability to help you meet your unique health goals.

70 percent of all causes of death in the United States are related to lifestyle. This means food choices, exercise habits and tobacco exposure largely determine one’s health. Diet is a large piece of this puzzle. We know that healthy food choices can help lower an individual’s risk for many chronic diseases such as heart disease, certain types of cancer and stroke. Despite this information, many Americans do not eat a healthy diet.

Nutrition is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Without proper nutrition, you don’t have enough energy to make it through the day. Also, your health can decline without proper nutrition, making you more susceptible to illness and disease. It is a known fact that a lot of diseases today are caused by an unhealthy diet.  Whether it is because the quantity of fat and calories leads to obesity, the lack of nutrients needed for a strong and healthy immune system, or the amount of chemicals and trans fats that are included in processed foods, unhealthy eating can lead to major health problems.

What is Nutrition Counseling?

Nutrition counseling is an interactive process between a client and a trained counselor that uses information from nutrition assessments to prioritize actions to improve nutritional status. Counseling helps identify client preferences, barriers to behavior change, and possible solutions to overcome those barriers. With this information, the client and care provider jointly plan a feasible course of action to support healthy practices. The care provider may use job aids to select appropriate messages and guide counseling sessions. Group education on key nutrition topics can be provided in health facility waiting rooms or for community groups using various print and audiovisual media.

Nutrition support includes –

  • Therapeutic and supplementary foods to treat clinical malnutrition
  • Complementary food supplements for children 6−23 months old to prevent malnutrition
  • Micronutrient supplements to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies
  • Point-of-use water purification products to prevent water-borne disease

Some aspects of nutrition support, such as prescription of therapeutic and supplementary foods, can be provided only by trained facility-based health care providers, but all aspects can be promoted and supported at the community level.

Nutrition Counseling helps in –

  • Prevent or manage health conditions like diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer and kidney disease.
  • Lower elevated fasting sugars, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid levels.
  • Manage food allergies / intolerances such as celiac disease and lactose intolerance while ensuring your nutritional needs are met through food substitutes or supplements
  • Address gastrointestinal and digestive issues such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease by isolating culprit foods
  • Learn how to make practical changes in your diet to improve its quality and variety and meet your daily nutrient needs from food and supplement
  • Learn how to make wise grocery shopping decisions by understanding and interpreting nutrition labels
  • Make informed choices on what you should eat and drink before, during and after your workouts
  • Dietitians can work with you and your personal trainer to develop a meal plan to boost energy levels, prevent hunger and stay hydrated pre and post work-out so you can perform to your maximum potential or to facilitate fitness goal achievements.

Areas of Nutrition Counseling

The key areas of Nutrition Counseling include –

  • General health and wellness
  • Nutrition to boost your energy
  • Weight management (weight loss and weight gain)
  • Cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol and high blood pressure
  • Type 2 diabetes and other blood sugar concerns
  • Glycemic index
  • Low iron and anemia
  • Sports nutrition
  • Eating disorders (binge eating, anorexia nervosa and bulimia)
  • Gastrointestinal issues (irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s and colitis)
  • Vegetarian or vegan nutrition
  • Food allergies or intolerances, including Celiac Disease and lactose intolerance
  • Osteoporosis or low bone density
  • Pregnancy and infant nutrition
  • Family nutrition and meal planning
  • Pediatric nutrition for such things as picky eating and growth concerns

Who is benefited?

A variety of people get benefit from nutritional counseling. This type of counseling assists all ages, ranging from pregnant women, to vegetarians, to the elderly and people with different medical complications. Those who may benefit include those with:

  • Diabetes
  • Osteoporosis
  • Poor nutrition and eating patterns
  • Eating disorders (some of which may require eating disorder treatment)
  • Digestive complications
  • HIV
  • Cancer
  • Hypertension
  • Nausea
  • Nutritional questions
  • Allergies
  • Organ problems
  • Obesity
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Menopause
  • Fitness goals
  • Heart diseases

For many people with eating disorders, this type of advice is very beneficial. In fact, many California eating disorder centers as well as other eating disorder residential programs across the country offer nutritional counseling.

Benefits of Nutrition Counseling

Lots of people can benefit from working with a nutritionist, for many different reasons–whether you need a complete diet overhaul, are looking to manage a medical condition, want to fine-tune your food choices, or get inspiration for new, healthy recipes.

  • Increase in energy
  • Healthier lifestyle and food choices
  • Better quality sleep
  • Reduced symptoms of disease
  • Less drastic range of emotions
  • Happiness
  • Possible increase in longevity
  • Strengthened immune system
  • Lesser chance of disorders and disease appearing
  • Better ability to concentrate.
Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

Migraines are a type of recurring severe headache that can cause you to have time off work and need to rest in bed. They are often accompanied by feeling sick, vomiting or an increased sensitivity to light.

It’s estimated that about 36 million Americans suffer from migraine, but only 1 of every 3 people talk with a doctor about their headaches. Of those, only half get the right diagnosis.

Women are roughly three times more likely to get migraines than men. About four in every 20 women get migraines, while only about one in every 20 men do. You can get migraines for the first time at any age, but they commonly start during the teenage years.

In general, a migraine is a very bad headache that tends to come back. It may occur as often as several times a week or only once every few years. It can last anywhere from a few hours to 3 days. The pain usually begins in the morning, on one side of the head. (In fact, the word migraine is derived from a Greek word that means “half-head.”) Less frequently, the entire head is swallowed up by pain.

The amount of pain can vary. Some migraines can be fairly mild, while others seem almost unbearable. Obviously, the worse the pain, the more trouble you have carrying out daily activities, whether it’s going to work or simply getting out of bed. Of course, different people have different abilities to put up with pain. For some people, even a mild migraine can force them to lie down; others are able to work through a more severe migraine.

Two types of migraines

While there are many variations, there are two main types of migraines –

Migraine without aura (previously called common migraine) – Almost 80 percent of migraine sufferers have this type of migraine.

Migraine with aura (previously called classic migraine) – This type of migraine announces itself about a half-hour before the onset of head pain with an aura.

Aura is a term used to describe the visual or sensory symptoms that some people get when their migraine is starting. The following are less common types of migraine –

  • Retinal migraines are headaches associated with visual changes in one eye only.
  • Abdominal migraines are associated with stomach pains, and happen more often in children.
  • Menstrual migraines can happen in women two days before their period starts or finishes.
  • Status migrainosus are migraines that can last for a few weeks.

Migraine is a medical condition that can have a big effect on your life and others caring for you. It can affect your daily life and can mean taking time off work or school.

Causes

There are many theories that discuss the causes of migraine. The cortical spreading depression (CSD) theory suggests that migraine is a disease of the brain such as angina is a disease of the heart. Disruption of normal brain functioning is believed to be the underlying cause of the migraine pain and aura. Another theory is the vascular theory which suggests that migraines result from the widening of blood vessels surrounding the brain. The chemical serotonin is also thought to play an important role in migraine development. While the precise cause of migraines remains unknown, a number of potential migraine triggers (habits or conditions associated with the onset of a migraine) have been identified.

Some people who suffer from migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, but many cannot. Potential migraine triggers include –

  • Allergies and allergic reactions
  • Bright lights, loud noises, flickering lights, smoky rooms, temperature changes, strong smells and certain odors or perfumes
  • Physical or emotional stress, tension, anxiety, depression, excitement
  • Physical triggers such as tiredness, jet lag, exercise
  • Changes in sleep patterns or irregular sleep
  • Smoking or exposure to smoke
  • Skipping meals or fasting causing low blood sugar
  • Dehydration
  • Alcohol
  • Hormonal triggers such as menstrual cycle fluctuations, birth control pills, menopause
  • Tension headaches
  • Foods containing tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken livers, figs, and some beans), monosodium glutamate (MSG), or nitrates (like bacon, hot dogs and salami)
  • Other foods such as chocolate, nuts, peanut butter, avocado, banana, citrus, onions, dairy products and fermented or pickled foods
  • Medication such as sleeping tablets, the contraceptive pill, hormone replacement therapy.
  • A higher percentage of obese people have episodic (occasional) migraines compared to individuals with a healthy body weight.
  • Sudden weather changes, including a drop in barometric pressure or changes in temperature, humidity, or wind
  • Loud noises
  • Perfumes or fumes
  • Secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to glare or flickering lights

Symptoms

Migraine symptoms may begin one to two days before the headache itself. This is known as the migraine’s prodrome stage. Symptoms include –

  • Food cravings
  • Depression
  • Fatigue or low energy
  • Frequent yawning
  • Hyperactivity
  • Irritability
  • Neck stiffness

Some people may also experience an aura after the prodrome stage. An aura causes visual, motor, and/or speech disturbances, such as –

  • Difficulty speaking clearly
  • Feeling a prickling or tingling sensation in the arms and legs
  • Flashes of light
  • Seeing shapes, light flashes or bright spots
  • Transient vision loss

The next phase is known as the attack phase. This is the most acute or severe of the phases when the actual migraine occurs. Attack phase symptoms can last anywhere from four hours to three days. Symptoms of a migraine can vary from person to person. Some symptoms may include –

  • Feeling dizzy or faint
  • Increased sensitivity to light and sound
  • Nausea
  • Pain on one side of the head
  • Pulsing and/or throbbing pain
  • Vomiting

Risk Factors

Family history – You are much more likely to have migraines if one or both of your parents had migraines.

Sex – Women are more likely than men to have migraines.

Age – Most people have their first migraine during adolescence, but migraines can start at any age, usually before age 40.

Treatment

Medications

Analgesia – Over-the-counter medications such as naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen (paracetamol), and other analgesics like Excedrin (aspirin with caffeine) are often the first abortive therapies to eliminate the headache or substantially reduce pain.

Anti-emetics – Metoclopramide may also be used to control symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.

Serotonin agonists – Sumatriptan may also be prescribed for severe migraines or for migraines that are not responding to the over-the-counter medications. Antidepressants such as tricyclics – are prescribed to reduce migraine symptoms although they are not approved in all countries for this purpose.

Ergots – Another class of abortive treatments is called ergots, which are usually effective if administered at the first sign of a migraine.

Alternative Treatment

5-hydroxytryptophan – Body makes the amino acid 5-HTP and converts it into serotonin, an important brain chemical. Researchers think abnormal serotonin function in blood vessels may be related to migraines, and some of the drugs used to treat migraines work by affecting serotonin.

Magnesium – People with migraines often have lower levels of magnesium than people who do not have migraines, and several studies suggest that magnesium may reduce the frequency of migraine attacks in people with low levels of magnesium.

Vitamin B2 – A few studies indicate that riboflavin may reduce the frequency and duration of migraines. In one study, people who took riboflavin had more than a 50% decrease in the number of attacks.

Coenzyme Q10 – CoQ10 can interact with several medications including blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin), some cancer medications, and medications for high blood pressure.

Melatonin – Melatonin can interact with a number of medications, so ask your doctor before taking it.

Butterbur – A few studies suggest that butterbur may help reduce both the frequency and duration of migraine attacks when taken on a regular basis for up to 4 months. More research is needed to see whether butterbur is really effective at preventing migraines.

Feverfew – Feverfew has been used traditionally to treat headaches, and several well-designed studies have found that it may help prevent and treat migraines.

Acupuncture has been studied as a treatment for migraine headache for more than 20 years. While not all studies have shown it helps, researchers agree that acupuncture appears safe, and may work for some people.

Chiropractic – In another study, people with migraine headaches were randomly assigned to receive spinal manipulation, a daily medication (Elavil), or a combination of both. Spinal manipulation worked as well as Elavil in reducing migraines and had fewer side effects. Combining the 2 therapies didn’t work any better.

Reflexology is a technique that places pressure on specific “reflex points” on the hands and feet that are believed to correspond to areas throughout the body. Some early studies suggest it may relieve pain and allow people with migraines to take less pain medication.

 

Reference –

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/headache-migraine

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/basics/treatment/con-20026358

http://www.medicinenet.com/migraine/article.htm

http://www.migraine.org.uk/get-involved/events

https://www.acponline.org/patients_families/pdfs/health/migraine.pdf

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/migraines.html

http://www.migraines.org/myth/mythreal.htm

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/headache-migraine

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and raised fasting plasma glucose, abdominal obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. When a patient presents with these risk factors together, the chances for future cardiovascular problems are greater than any one factor presenting alone.

The term “metabolic” refers to the biochemical processes involved in the body’s normal functioning. Risk factors are traits, conditions, or habits that increase the chance of developing a disease.

Metabolic syndrome is a serious health condition that affects about 34 percent of adults and places them at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke and diseases related to fatty buildups in artery walls. The underlying causes of metabolic syndrome include overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and genetic factors.

The condition is also known by other names including Syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, and dysmetabolic syndrome. According to a national health survey, more than one in five Americans has metabolic syndrome. The number of people with metabolic syndrome increases with age, affecting more than 40 percent of people in their 60s and 70s.

Causes

Metabolic syndrome has several causes that act together. A person can control some of the causes, such as overweight and obesity, an inactive lifestyle, and insulin resistance.

People can’t control other factors that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome, such as growing older. The risk for metabolic syndrome increases with age.

People also can’t control genetics (ethnicity and family history), which may play a role in causing the condition. For example, genetics can increase the risk for insulin resistance, which can lead to metabolic syndrome.

People who have metabolic syndrome often have two other conditions: excessive blood clotting and constant, low-grade inflammation throughout the body. Researchers don’t know whether these conditions cause metabolic syndrome or worsen it.

Researchers continue to study conditions that may play a role in metabolic syndrome, such as –

  • A fatty liver (excess triglycerides and other fats in the liver)
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (a tendency to develop cysts on the ovaries)
  • Gallstones
  • Breathing problems during sleep (such as sleep apnea)

Risk Factors

The following factors increase the chances of having metabolic syndrome –

  • Age – The risk of metabolic syndrome increases with age, affecting 40 percent of people over the age of 60.
  • Race – Hispanics and Asians seem to be at greater risk of metabolic syndrome than are people of other races.
  • Obesity – Carrying too much weight increases the risk of metabolic syndrome
  • Diabetes – People are more likely to have metabolic syndrome if they had diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) or if they have a family history of type 2 diabetes.
  • Other diseases – The risk of metabolic syndrome is higher if people have ever had cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or polycystic ovary syndrome.

Symptoms

Clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome include the following –

  • Hypertension
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypertriglyceridemia
  • Reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)
  • Abdominal obesity
  • Chest pains or shortness of breath: Suggesting the rise of cardiovascular and other complications
  • Acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, peripheral neuropathy, and retinopathy: In patients with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia or with diabetes mellitus
  • Xanthomas or xanthelasmas: In patients with severe dyslipidemia

Complications

  • Arteriosclerosis – This happens when cholesterol hardens and begins to build up in the walls of arteries, causing blockages that can lead to high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke.
  • Poor kidney function – The kidneys become less able to filter toxins out of the blood, which can also increase the risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, or stroke.
  • Insulin resistance – This occurs when the body’s cells don’t respond to insulin (the hormone that helps to regulate sugar in the blood) normally, and that can lead to high blood sugar levels and diabetes.
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome – Thought to be related to insulin resistance, this disorder involves the release of extra male hormones by the ovaries, which can lead to abnormal menstrual bleeding, excessive hair growth, acne, and fertility problems. It is also associated with an increased risk for obesity, hypertension, and — in the long-term — diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.
  • Acanthosis nigricans – A skin disorder that causes thick, dark, velvet-like patches of skin around the neck, armpits, groin, between the fingers and toes, or on the elbows and knees.

Treatment

Lose weight – Moderate weight loss, in the range of 5 percent to 10 percent of body weight, can help restore your body’s ability to recognize insulin and greatly reduce the chance that the syndrome will evolve into a more serious illness. This can be done via diet, exercise, or even with help from certain weight-loss medications if recommended by your doctor.

Exercise – Increased activity alone can improve your insulin levels. Aerobic exercise such as a brisk 30-minute daily walk can result in a weight loss, improved blood pressure, improved cholesterol levels and a reduced risk of developing diabetes. Most health care providers recommend 150 minutes of aerobic exercise each week. Exercise may reduce the risk for heart disease even without accompanying weight loss.

Consider dietary changes – Maintain a diet that keeps carbohydrates to no more than 50 percent of total calories. Eat foods defined as complex carbohydrates, such as whole grain bread (instead of white), brown rice (instead of white), and sugars that are unrefined (instead of refined; for example cookies, crackers).

Alternative Treatment

 

Reference –

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/metabolic-syndrome

http://www.liebertpub.com/overview/metabolic-syndromebrand-related-disorders/115/

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_Metabolic_Syndrome

http://patient.info/doctor/metabolic-syndrome

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/metabolic_syndrome/article_em.htm

http://www.liebertpub.com/editorialboard/metabolic-syndromebrand-related-disorders/115/

http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MetabolicSyndrome/Metabolic-Syndrome_UCM_002080_SubHomePage.jsp

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms

https://www.pritikin.com/your-health/health-benefits/reverse-metabolic-syndrome/1381-metabolic-syndrome-cleaning-up-a-mess.html

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/metabolic-syndrome.html

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

Metabolic disorders are any of the diseases or disorders that disrupt normal metabolism – the process of converting food to energy on a cellular level. Thousands of enzymes participating in numerous interdependent metabolic pathways carry out this process. Metabolic diseases affect the ability of the cell to perform critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing or transport of proteins (amino acids), carbohydrates (sugars and starches), or lipids (fatty acids).

Disorders in metabolism can be inherited, in which case they are also known as inborn errors of metabolism, or they may be acquired during your lifetime. Many metabolic disorders exist, and they are common in the United States. For, instance, diabetes is metabolic disease that affects approximately 26 million Americans. The onset of symptoms usually occurs when the body’s metabolism comes under stress—for example, after prolonged fasting or during a febrile illness. For some metabolic disorders, it is possible to obtain prenatal diagnostic screening.

Metabolic disorder is quite common. Approximately 32% of the population in the U.S. has metabolic disorder. Around 25% of adults in Europe and Latin America are estimated to have the condition, and rates are rising in developing East Asian countries. Within the US, Mexican Americans have the highest prevalence of metabolic disorder. The prevalence of metabolic disorder increases with age, and about 40% of people over 60 are affected.

Risk Factors

A number of factors increase the risk of developing metabolic disorders. Not all people with risk factors will get metabolic disorders. Risk factors for metabolic disorders include –

  • Certain chronic medical conditions, such as lung or kidney disease (includes any type of kidney problem, such as kidney stones, kidney failure and kidney anomalies)
  • Family history of genetic metabolic disorder
  • HIV/AIDS

Types of Metabolic Disorders

Some types of Metabolic Disorders are –

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) – This is a rare but fatal genetic disorder in which patients accumulate high levels of saturated, very-long-chain fatty acids in the brain and adrenal cortex, which develop because they cannot produce an enzyme that breaks down fatty acids. This leads to a breakdown of the myelin sheath, the membrane that protects the brain and spinal cord. This conditions also causes the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol, which regulates glucose metabolism, blood pressure and the release of insulin for blood pressure maintenance.
  • Alkaptonuria – Also called onchorosis, this is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by arthritis in adulthood and dark brown or black urine, which occurs when a patient cannot break down tyrosine, a type of amino acid, due to a defect in an enzyme that causes something called homogenistic acid to be released in the urine. Homogenistic acid turns brown when exposed to air. This condition is not life threatening, although lifelong treatment to manage systems is often required.
  • Cystinosis – This metabolic disorder is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of the amino acid cystine in the body, causing cystine to build up in the kidneys, eyes, muscles, pancreas and brain, eventually leading to tissue and organ damage.
  • DIDMOAD (Wolfram) syndrome – DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness) syndrome is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that takes place when the protein wolframin does not function properly, causing an inability to concentrate urine (diabetes insipidus), and inability to produce or properly use insulin (diabetes mellitus), blindness or deafness. Patients can also suffer from serious nervous system problems.
  • Glucose 6-phosphate-dehydrogenese deficiency – G6PD deficiency is an inherited enzyme deficiency in which patients has low levels of G6PD in their blood cells, causing the cells to die prematurely when the patient has an infection or is exposed to chemicals in food or medications.
  • Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) – HHH is a rare disorder in which patients suffer from poor coordination and learning disabilities due to a buildup of an amino acid called ornithine that prevents the removal of nitrogen waste from the body.
  • Inborn errors of urea synthesis – This metabolic disorder occurs when a series of enzyme reactions that remove nitrogen waste from the blood, called the urea cycle, is disrupted, leading to increased levels of ammonia in the blood and a condition called hyperammonemia, which leads to mental retardation, coma and death.
  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome – This is a rare neuromuscular disorder that occurs when there are mutated mitochondria inside a patient’s cells. This condition mostly affects the eyes.
  • Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) – This metabolic disorder is caused by a deficiency of an enzyme needed to break down amino acids; these amino acids can build up to toxic levels in the body, and MSUD can cause brain and progressive nervous system damage.
  • McArdle’s disease – Also called glycogen storage disease, this is a rare muscular disease in which patients are unable to produce a protein called phosphorylase needed to produce the energy skeletal muscles require to exercise.
  • MELAS syndrome – MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome is a very form of dementia, which is fatal and has no cure.
  • Metabolic syndrome – Also called syndrome X, this condition is characterized by a patient having two or more of a group of conditions such as high blood pressure, high insulin levels, excess waist fat and high cholesterol. Patients with this condition are more likely to develop stroke, heart disease and diabetes.
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) – Also called Folling’s disease, this potentially fatal condition occurs when patients do not have an enzyme needed to produce a protein called phenylalanine. People with this condition must follow a strict diet that does not contain phenylalanine, which means avoiding high-protein foods such as meat, cheese, milk or nuts.
  • Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency (hyperalaninemia) – Patients with this condition are born with low levels of the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase, which is needed to break down alkaline in the blood.
  • Subacute necrotizing encephalopathy – Also called Leigh’s disease, this fatal condition is caused by a missing enzyme called dehydrogenase, and is characterized by a degeneration of the brain and spin cord.
  • Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) – This condition progressively destroys the brain and nervous system, leading to blindness, paralysis and death. Symptoms of the most common type of TSD usually form when the baby is six months old, and patients typically die within a few years.
  • Trimethylaminuria – Patients with this condition excessively produce a protein called trimethylamine, given them offensive body odor that smells like rotting fish.

Causes

Metabolic disorders develop when normal metabolic processes are disturbed. Normally, food is broken down by the body into simpler components (proteins, fats and sugars) in a highly regulated manner. Metabolic disorders are defined by a breakdown in any one of the steps of this complex process. Disorders in metabolism can be inherited, in which case they are known as inborn errors of metabolism, or they may be acquired. They may also occur as complications of other serious diseases, such as liver or respiratory failure, cancer, end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis), and HIV/AIDS.

Genetic Factor – There are numerous examples of inherited metabolic disorders, which can be classified based on the type of food-related building block that they affect, including amino acids (the building block for proteins), carbohydrates, and fatty acids (the building block for fats). Inherited causes of metabolic disorders include:

  • Amino acid disorders; examples include Tay-Sachs disease, phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, maple syrup urine disease, and homocystinuria
  • Carbohydrate disorders; examples include diabetes insipidus, hereditary fructose intolerance, galactosemia, pyruvate metabolism disorders, von Gierke’s disease, McArdle disease, Pompe’s disease, and Forbes’ disease
  • Fatty acid oxidation defects; examples include Gaucher’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Fabry’s disease, and medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency

Other Factors – Metabolic disorders can be due to other factors, such as a combination of inherited and environmental factors. Other examples of conditions that can cause metabolic disorders include –

  • Alcohol abuse
  • Diabetes (chronic disease that affects your body’s ability to use sugar for energy)
  • Diuretic abuse
  • Gout (type of arthritis caused by a buildup of uric acid in the joints)
  • Ingestion of poison or toxins, including excessive aspirin, bicarbonate, alkali, ethylene glycol, or methanol
  • Kidney failure
  • Pneumonia, respiratory failure, or collapsed lung
  • Sepsis (life-threatening bacterial blood infection)

Symptoms

The symptoms of metabolic disorders vary widely depending on the metabolism problem present. Some symptoms of metabolic disorders include –

  • Lethargy
  • Poor appetite
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Jaundice
  • Failure to gain weight or grow
  • Developmental delay
  • Seizures
  • Coma
  • Abnormal odor of urine, breath, sweat, or saliva

The symptoms may come on suddenly or progress slowly. Symptoms may be brought on by foods, medications, dehydration, minor illnesses, or other factors. Symptoms appear within a few weeks after birth in many conditions. Other inherited metabolic disorders may take years for symptoms to develop.

Metabolic disorders can present with a great diversity of signs and symptoms that mimic non-genetic disorders. Common presenting symptoms are –

  • Acute neonatal symptoms (described below)
  • Failure to thrive
  • CNS symptoms such as developmental delay, movement or psychiatric disorder or cerebral palsy
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  • Episodic illness – anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, coma
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Muscular – hypotonic, weakness, cramps
  • Gastrointestinal – anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, malabsorption
  • Liver disease
  • Ophthalmic abnormalities
  • Reye’s syndrome-like illness
  • Dysmorphic features
  • Metabolic – acidosis, hypoglycaemia

Treatment

Treatment for metabolic disorders begins with seeking medical care from your health care provider. The treatment approach for metabolic disorders depends on the specific disorder. Inborn errors of metabolism ( metabolic disorders) are often treated with nutritional counseling and support, periodic assessment, physical therapy, and other supportive care options. Acquired metabolic disorder treatment will include normalizing the metabolic balance by both reversing the cause and administering medications.

Treatment options for  metabolic disorders – Multiple treatment options are available for inherited metabolic disorders. Examples include –

  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Enzyme replacement therapy in selected patients
  • Gene therapy in selected patients
  • Medications to reduce symptoms, such as pain or low blood sugar
  • Mineral supplementation
  • Nutritional counseling
  • Physical therapy
  • Surgery to relieve pain or symptoms
  • Vitamin supplementation

Alternative Treatment

Chromium – Improves glucose tolerance and balances blood‐sugar levels.

Magnesium – Plays an important role in both the prevention and treatment of Metabolic Disorder and diabetes. It benefits these conditions by increasing the number and sensitivity of insulin receptors.

Gymnema sylvestre – An herb native to the tropical forests of southern and central India, it lowers blood sugar levels.

Alpha lipoic acid – Some researchers credit alpha‐lipoic acid with being the principal supplement for preventing and reversing Metabolic Disorder. The supplement earned this reputation by increasing the burning of glucose. The body needs alpha‐lipoic acid to produce energy; it plays a crucial role in the energy‐ producing structures in cells (mitochondria). The body actually makes enough alpha‐ lipoic acid for this basic function.

Vanadyl sulfate  – Vanadyl Sulfate is the most popular and common form of vanadium, an element in the body that is found in foods such as pepper, dill, radishes, eggs, vegetable oils, buckwheat, and oats.

Highpotency multivitamin/mineral supplement – This will supply many of the nutrients involved with blood sugar metabolism.

Biotin – Biotin is involved with proper glucose metabolism.

Essential Fatty Acids  – EFAs – especially omega‐3s – are vital to health and proper insulin function. Flaxseed or fish oil, combined with evening primrose oil is a good idea.

 

 

Reference –

http://www.healthgrades.com/conditions/metabolic-disorders–treatments

http://www.healthline.com/health/nutrition-metabolism-disorders#Types4

http://www.britannica.com/science/metabolic-disease/Disorders-of-lipid-metabolism

https://www.floridahospital.com/metabolic-disorders/treatments

http://www.medicinenet.com/metabolic_syndrome/page4.htm#what_is_the_treatment_for_metabolic_syndrome

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/inherited-metabolic-disorder-types-and-treatments?page=3#1

http://www.mda.org/disease

http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7015-9-48.pdf

http://gep.wustl.edu/curriculum/course_materials_WU/introduction_to_genomics/bio3055/3055/projects/HPRT1/ch14d1.pdf

https://www.idf.org/webdata/docs/IDF_Meta_def_final.pdf

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

Leaky Gut also known as ‘Intestinal Permeability’ is a condition in which the lining of the small intestine becomes damaged, in turn causing undigested food particles, toxic waste products and bacteria to leak through the intestines and flood the bloodstream. The foreign substances entering the blood can cause an autoimmune response in the body including inflammatory and allergic reactions such as migraines, irritable bowel, eczema, chronic fatigue, food allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and more.

With a leaky gut, damaged cells in the intestine are unable to produce the enzymes needed for proper digestion. Hence, it5 becomes difficult for the body to absorb essential nutrients, causing hormonal imbalance and a weakened immune system.

In more scientific language, an increase in permeability of the intestinal mucosa to luminal macromolecules, antigens and toxins associated with inflammatory degenerative and/or atrophic mucosal damage. Once in the blood stream the immune system is the last line of defense to deal with these substances and it will eventually get overwhelmed if a Leaky Gut is not rectified.

Leaky Gut Syndrome is a very common condition in this day and age. It is the cause of much or our modern autoimmune illness: IBS, Chrons disease, allergies, asthma, food sensitivities, chemical sensitivities, arthritic conditions, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, addison’s disease, lupus, fibromyalgia, thyroiditis. It is an illness that depicts our modern times.

Causes

In most cases, leaky gut is caused by the diet. Certain foods, like gluten, soy and dairy, act as foreign invaders of the gut. When these foods are consumed, the body goes into war, i.e, producing antibodies, as a result of a triggered immune response that includes diarrhea, headaches, fatigue and joint pain.

Leaky gut can also be caused by medications including antibiotics, steroids or over-the-counter pain relievers like aspirin and acetaminophen, which can irritate the intestinal lining and damage protective mucus layers. This irritation can start or continue the inflammation cycle that leads to intestinal permeability. Alcohol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen are well-known irritants of the bowel lining.

The key and most common cause of Leaky Gut is Candida. Candida is a yeast-fungal organism that grows roots like a plant. These roots grow into and through the intestinal tract looking for food. These roots break through the intestinal lining and cause the leaky gut.

Our intestinal lining replaces itself approximately every 24 hours. This means that every cell that the lining is composed of is digested, and a new one grows to take its place. All this activity means the gut uses more blood when it is resting than any other organ but it is also the first to lose its blood supply when in a fight or flight situation, which is what stress is. If you have a lot of stress then your gut will always be starved for blood and the lining will be impaired.

Zinc is a critical piece of maintaining a strong intestinal lining.  A deficiency of the vitamin can lead to the mucosal lining losing strength and becoming more permeable.  There are studies that show that supplementing with Zinc when it is deficient can dramatically improve intestinal lining integrity

Certain conditions and treatments

The following conditions and treatments can also damage the seals in the bowel lining:

  • Inflammatory bowel diseases – such as Crohn’s disease
  • Infections of the intestines – such as salmonella, norovirus and giardiasis
  • Coeliac disease
  • Chemotherapy medicines
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Radiotherapy to the abdomen (tummy)
  • Immunosuppressants (medicines that weaken the immune system)
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Tystic Fibrosis
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Sepsis
  • Complicated Surgery

Factors that worsen Leaky Gut –

  • Alcohol and caffeine, which irritate the gut wall, this includes cokes (diet and regular), chocolate, coffee, and cocoa.
  • Contaminated foods, E. coli and other bacteria’s can develop due to poor food handling.
  • Chemicals found in processed and fermented foods (dyes and preservatives), wine, vinegar, soy sauce, tofu, etc.
  • A diet high in refined sugars and other carbohydrates (e.g. candy, cookies, sodas, processed foods and white bread).
  • Foods contaminated by parasites (pork, chicken, fresh water and hatchery fish).
  • Antibiotic use-this causes an overgrowth of fungi (yeast) in the gut due to the immune suppression that occurs.
  • Ingestion of animal products that have been given hormonal and antibiotic treatments.
  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).

Symptoms

  • The long-term net result of the leaky gut is the likely development of autoimmune disease where the body attacks its own tissues. There are some 80 recognized autoimmune diseases. These include:
  • Lupus
  • Alopecia areata
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Polymyalgia
  • Multiple sclerosis rheumatica
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Celiac disease
  • Vitiligo syndrome
  • Thyroiditis
  • Vasculitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Urticaria (hives)
  • Diabetes
  • Psoriasis

Physicians are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of the GI tract in the development of autoimmune diseases. In fact, researchers now estimate that more than two-thirds of all immune activity occurs in the gut.  Allergies can develop when the body produces antibodies to the undigested proteins derived from previously harmless foods. These antibodies can get into any tissue and trigger an inflammatory reaction when that food is eaten. Depending on where this inflammation occurs in the body—in the joints, brain, lungs, blood vessels or gut—a variety of chronic illnesses can develop as a result.

Other disorders that are associated with leaky gut include eczema, psoriasis, pancreatic insufficiency, candidiasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), multiple chemical sensitivities and even heart disease. Leaky gut can aggravate existing conditions as well, for it can give rise to such symptoms as:

  • Fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Fever
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin rashes
  • Memory deficit
  • Shortness of breath

Leaky gut syndrome can also cause malabsorption and thus deficiencies of many important nutrients—vitamins, minerals and amino acids—due to inflammation and the presence of potent toxins. This malabsorption can also cause gas, bloating and cramps, and can eventually lead to such complaints as fatigue, headaches, memory loss, poor concentration and irritability.

Treatment

Medications – Band-aid treatment with corticosteroids, prescription broad-spectrum antibiotics, and immunosuppressive drugs may be prescribed for acute episodes of pain, bleeding or severe inflammation of the gut. However, there is no conventional treatment that resolves a leaky gut.

Alternative treatment

Probiotics – Probiotics are the most important supplement to take because it helps replenish good bacteria and crowds out bad bacteria. They play essential roles that not only fight off the bad bacteria, but also reduce inflammation in the gut.

Digestive Enzymes – Digestive enzymes are critical to properly breaking down the foods we eat.  They are found naturally in the raw form of foods to help break them down. The plant based enzymes will break down food into very small particles before it leaves the stomach, preventing large undigested molecules from irritating the intestinal lining and increasing nutritional uptake.  They also work through the intestines acting as garbage collectors by removing toxins, bacteria, and damaged cells of the mucosal lining.  The whole process gives the gut a clean slate of healthy cells to rebuild with.  While the leaky gut permeability remains, they do the same garbage collecting in the bloodstream if they are passed through the intestinal lining.  The bromelain and papain enzymes or pancreatic animal tissues (porcine, bovine, lamb) and aloe vera juice are shown to reduce inflammation in the gut lining and throughout other tissues in the body, allowing the immune system and the liver some reprieve.

Nutritional Supplementing – The conditions that lead to leaky gut can also cause mal-absorption and improper digestion, both of which are going to leave you with nutritional deficiencies.  First and foremost: supplementing with a good multi-vitamin, large amounts of vitamin D, and Zinc will help the intestinal lining return to normal

L-Glutamine is critical for any program designed to heal leaky gut. Glutamine is an essential amino acid that is anti-inflammatory and necessary for the growth and repair of your intestinal lining. L-glutamine benefits include acting as a protector: coating your cell walls and acting as a repellent to irritants.

Licorice Root (DGL) is an adaptogenic herb that helps balance cortisol levels and improves acid production in the stomach. DGL supports the body’s natural processes for maintaining the mucosal lining of the stomach and duodenum. This herb is especially beneficial if someone’s leaky gut is being caused by emotional stress.

Quercetin has also been shown to improve gut barrier function by sealing the gut because it supports creation of tight junction proteins. It also stabilizes mast cells and reduces the release of histamine, which is common in food intolerance. New studies have also shown its effectiveness in healing ulcerative colitis.

Essential fatty acids – Milled flax, flax seed oil, evening primrose oil, borage oil, olive oil, fish oil, black current seed oil; soluble fiber – pysillium seed husks and powder, apple and citrus pectin, the rice derived gamma oryzanol.

Plant Extract – Kudzu, various high chlorophyll containing green drinks like spirulina, chlorella and blue-green algae, burdock, slippery elm, Turkish rhubarb, sheep sorrel, licorice root, ginger root, goldenseal, bismuth and bentonite.

Colostrum – Colostrum has been clinically proven to heal leaky gut and increase immune response.

 

Reference –

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/leaky-gut-syndrome/Pages/Introduction.aspx

https://www.womentowomen.com/digestive-health/healing-leaky-gut-syndrome-open-the-door-to-good-health-2/

http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/features/leaky-gut-syndrome

http://draxe.com/4-steps-to-heal-leaky-gut-and-autoimmune-disease/

http://www.purehealingfoods.com/infoLeakyGut.php

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

Klinefelter syndrome (also called XXY syndrome), was first described in 1942 by Dr Harry Klinefelter and is one of the more common chromosomal conditions affecting males. An additional X chromosome is found in the cells of these affected boys, giving them two X chromosomes instead of the usual one (see later).

A syndrome is a condition distinguished by a number of features that often occur together. There are a number of features that can be present in Klinefelter syndrome.

Some affected boys will have more features of the syndrome than others and there will be a difference in the degree of severity of the symptoms between affected boys. In some cases, a diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome is not made until a boy approaches puberty and some.

The effects can vary greatly and may include:

  • Infertility – the condition may be diagnosed when fertility problems are being investigated.
  • Reduced testicle size – in all males with Klinefelter syndrome, the testicles do not develop properly and are noticeably smaller from early adolescence.
  • Incomplete puberty – not enough of the male hormone testosterone is produced and puberty may appear to be delayed. These boys may be given testosterone treatment so they develop usual male physical characteristics like facial hair and a deeper voice.
  • Language and learning problems – in many males with Klinefelter syndrome, difficulties with speech, writing, or understanding and processing speech may be noticed.

Klinefelter syndrome occurs in around one in every 450 male babies, which makes it one of the most common variations of the chromosomes. However, only around a quarter of these males have a diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome, also known as XXY syndrome. The additional X chromosome does not influence sexual orientation.

Causes

Most people have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes contain all of your genes and DNA, the building blocks of the body. The 2 sex chromosomes (X and Y) determine if you become a boy or a girl. Girls normally have 2 X chromosomes. Boys normally have 1 X and 1 Y chromosome.

Klinefelter syndrome results when a boy is born with at least 1 extra X chromosome. Usually, this occurs due to 1 extra X. This is written as XXY.

Klinefelter syndrome stems from a random genetic event. The risk of a child being born with Klinefelter syndrome isn’t increased by anything a parent does or doesn’t do. For older mothers, the risk is higher but only slightly.

Symptoms

Not all makes with XXY actually develop the syndrome or its symptoms.  In fact, many males show no abnormalities at all.  However, for those who have developed KS, the following characteristics have been identified:

  • Sterility (normal sexual function, but inability to produce sperm)
  • Breast Development
  • Incomplete masculine build; round body type
  • Undersized testes
  • Social difficulties (may be less confident, more immature, shy, passive, apathetic, sensitive, dependent, and have a fragile self‐esteem)
  • Learning difficulties
  • Restless sleep patterns, yet difficult to awake in the morning
  • Lower level of activity
  • Lower level of endurance
  • Hand tremors
  • Frustration‐based outburst
  • Decreased growth of facial hair
  • Large stature (average height is 6’1/2”)
  • Overweight
  • Speech and language problems (receptive skills are higher than expressive)
  • Difficulty learning to read and write

Complications

Complications of Klinefelter syndrome can include –

  • Delayed puberty
  • Noticeable physical features, such as sparse facial and body hair, unusually long legs and arms, lack of muscular development, and enlarged breast tissue
  • Learning disabilities, attention problems or social development issues
  • Infertility
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis)
  • Increased risk of varicose veins and other problems with blood vessels
  • Increased risk of breast cancer and cancers of the blood, bone marrow or lymph nodes
  • Increased risk of lung disease
  • Increased risk of autoimmune disorders, such as type 1 diabetes and lupus
  • Increased belly fat, which can lead to other health problems
  • Problems with sexual function

Treatment

Testosterone therapy is used to increase strength, promote muscular development, grow body hair, improve mood and self esteem, increase energy and improve concentration.

Most men who have Klinefelter syndrome are not able to father children. However, some men with an extra X chromosome have fathered healthy offspring, sometimes with the help of infertility specialists.

Most men who have Klinefelter syndrome can expect to have a normal and productive life. Early diagnosis, in conjunction with educational interventions, medical management, and strong social support will optimize each individual?s potential in adulthood.

Breast tissue removal – In males who develop enlarged breasts (gynecomastia), excess breast tissue can be removed by a plastic surgeon, leaving a more normal-looking chest.

Speech and physical therapy – These treatments can help boys with Klinefelter syndrome overcome problems with speech, language and muscle weakness.

Educational support – Some boys with Klinefelter syndrome have trouble learning and can benefit from extra assistance. Talk to your child’s teacher, school counselor or school nurse about what kind of support might help.

Fertility treatment – Most men with Klinefelter syndrome are unable to father children, because no sperm are produced in the testicles. Some men with Klinefelter syndrome may have some minimal sperm production.

Psychological counseling – Having Klinefelter syndrome can be a challenge, especially during puberty and young adulthood. For men with the condition, coping with infertility can be difficult. A family therapist, counselor or psychologist can help you work through emotional issues.

Alternative Treatment

Herbal Treatment – However, many herbs and supplements have been shown to have phytoestrogen properties, including agrimony, alfalfa, arginine, black cohosh, bloodroot, boron, burdock, chamomile, chasteberry, dong quai, Essiac®, fennel, fenugreek, fo-ti, ginseng, hops, kudzu, licorice, melatonin, niacin, oregano, pomegranate, pygeum, quercetin, red clover, resveratrol, soy, St. John’s wort, thyme, white horehound, and yucca.

 

Reference –

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/klinefelter-syndrome

http://www.genetic.org/Knowledge/WhatAreXYChromosomeVariations.aspx

https://www.andrologyaustralia.org/your-health/klinefelters-syndrome/

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/klinefelter-syndrome

https://www.andrologyaustralia.org/wp-content/uploads/Hormones_and_Me_13_Klinefelter_Syndrome.pdf

https://www.genome.gov/19519068

https://www.andrologyaustralia.org/your-health/klinefelters-syndrome/

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/klinefelters-syndrome/Pages/Introduction.aspx

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/klinefelter-syndrome/overview.html

Posted in NUTRITION
February 7, 2017

Kidney stones (calculi) are hardened mineral deposits that form in the kidney. They originate as microscopic particles or crystals and develop into stones over time. The medical term for this condition is nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease.

The job of the kidneys is to maintain the body’s balance of water, minerals and salts. Urine is the product of this filtering process. Under certain conditions, substances normally dissolved in urine, such as calcium, oxalate and phosphate, become too concentrated and can separate out as crystals. A kidney stone develops when these crystals attach to one another, accumulating into a small mass, or stone.

Kidney stones vary in size and shape. Stones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Some stones are even as big as golf balls. Stones may be smooth or jagged and are usually yellow or brown.

Kidney stones come in a variety of mineral types –

  • Calcium stones – Most kidney stones are composed of calcium and oxalate. Many people who form calcium containing stones have too much calcium in their urine, a condition known as hypercalciuria There are several reasons why hypercalciuria may occur. Some people absorb too much calcium from their intestines. Others absorb too much calcium from their bones. Still others have kidneys that do not correctly regulate the amount of calcium they release into their urine. There are some people who form calcium oxalate stones as a result of too much oxalate in the urine, a condition known as hypercalciuria In some cases, too much oxalate in the urine is a result of inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, or other times it may be a consequence of prior intestinal surgery. Calcium phosphate stones, another kind of calcium stone, are much less common than calcium oxalate stones. For some people, calcium phosphate stones form as a result of a medical condition known as renal tubular acidosis.
  • Struvite stones – Some patients form stones that are composed of a mixture of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate and calcium carbonate, which is known as struvite. These stones form as a result of infection with certain types of bacteria that can produce ammonia. Ammonia acts to raise the pH of urine, which makes it alkaline and promotes the formation of struvite.
  • Uric acid stones – Uric acid is produced when the body metabolizes protein. When the pH of urine drops below 5.5, urine becomes saturated with uric acid crystals, a condition known as hypercalciuria. When there is too much uric acid in the urine, stones can form. Uric acid stones are more common in people who consume large amounts of protein, such as that found in red meat or poultry. People with gout can also form uric acid stones.
  • Cystine stones – Cystine stones are rare, and they form only in persons with an inherited metabolic disorder that causes high levels of cystine in the urine, a condition known as cystinuria.

Stones may pass out of the kidney, become lodged in the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder (ureter), and cause severe, excrutiating pain that begins in the lower back and radiates to the groin. A lodged stone can block the flow of urine, causing pressure to build in the affected ureter and kidney. Increased pressure results in stretching and spasm, which cause the severe pain.

Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Each year in the United States, people make more than a million visits to health care providers and more than 300,000 people go to emergency rooms for kidney stone problems.

Causes

People develop kidney stones because –

  • Their small bowel absorbs too much calcium
  • Their diets are too high in calcium or another mineral
  • They have intestinal problems
  • Urinary tract infections
  • They may have inherited a certain disorder that makes their bodies more likely to form kidney stones

Other factors that increase the risk of kidney stones include –

  • Not drinking enough fluids (especially in the summer)
  • Not exercising enough, or a sedentary lifestyle
  • Hypertension, which makes people nearly 3 times more likely to develop kidney stones
  • Stress
  • Poor dietary habits
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Family history of kidney stones
  • Continual exposure to high temperatures, which makes people nearly 8 times more likely to form kidney stones
  • Other medical conditions, such as gout, chronic diarrhea, certain cancers, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Kidney Stones in Children – Kidney stones are found in children as young as 5 years. In fact, this problem is so common in children that some hospitals conduct ‘stone’ clinics for pediatric patients. The increase in the United States has been attributed to several factors, mostly related to food choices. The two most important reasons are not drinking enough fluids and eating foods that are high in salt. Kids should eat less salty potato chips and French fries. There are other salty foods: sandwich meats, canned soups, packaged meals, and even some sports drinks. Sodas and other sweetened beverages can also increase the risk of stones if they contain high fructose corn syrup.

Risk Factors

Anyone can have a kidney stone, but it may be more likely if they –

  • Are male
  • Are Caucasian
  • Are very overweight
  • Have had kidney infections
  • Have a family member with kidney stones
  • Have had kidney stones before
  • Eat a lot of animal protein (such as meat and eggs)
  • Do not drink enough liquids

Other conditions and medicines can also put people at greater risk for kidney stones.

Symptoms

The most common symptoms of kidney stones are blood in the urine or pain. Pain severity and location of pain might vary depending on such factors as stone location and degree of obstruction. Other symptoms include –

  • Feeling the need to urinate often
  • Inability to urinate (when a stone blocks the urinary tract)
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Cloudy, foul smelling urine, fever, chills, or weakness might be a sign of a serious infection.

Some kidney stones are called “silent stones” because they do not cause symptoms.

Treatment

Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy – Ultrasound waves are used to break the kidney stone into smaller pieces, which can pass out with the urine. It is used for stones less than two centimetres in size.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy – A small incision is made in the back and then a special instrument is used to remove the kidney stone.

Endoscope Removal – An instrument is inserted into the urethra, passed into the bladder, then to where the stone is located. It allows the doctor to remove the stone or break it up so it can pass more easily.

Surgery – This requires an incision in the back to access the kidney and ureter to remove the stone.

Medications – The health care provider may prescribe certain medications to help prevent kidney stones based on the type of stone formed or conditions that make a person more prone to form stones –

  • hyperuricosuria—allopurinol (Zyloprim), which decreases uric acid in the blood and urine
  • hypercalciuria—diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide
  • hyperoxaluria—potassium citrate to raise the citrate and pH of urine
  • uric acid stones—allopurinol and potassium citrate
  • cystine stones—mercaptopropionyl glycine, which decreases cystine in the urine, and potassium citrate
  • struvite stones—antibiotics, which are bacteria-fighting medications, when needed to treat infections, or acetohydroxamic acid with long-term antibiotic medications to prevent infection

People with hyperparathyroidism sometimes develop calcium stones.

Self Help

  • Eat antioxidant-rich foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes), and vegetables (such as squash and bell peppers). Low antioxidant intake is associated with stone formation.
  • Eat more high fiber foods, including beans, oats, root vegetables (such as potatoes and yams), and psyllium seed.
  • Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
  • Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy is present) or beans for protein. High animal protein intake may cause you to excrete more calcium and uric acid, increasing the risk of stone formation.
  • Cut down on oxalate containing foods, such as spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, coffee, black tea, wheat bran, strawberries, and beans.
  • Include foods rich in magnesium and low in calcium, such as barley, bran, corn, rye, oats, soy, brown rice, avocado, banana, and potato.
  • Use healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil or coconut oil.
  • Reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids, found in such commercially-baked goods as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
  • Avoid coffee and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco.
  • Drink 6 to 8 glasses of filtered water daily. Some experts recommend doubling previous fluid intake after a stone diagnosis.
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week.
  • Reduce sodium and sugar intake, both of which are linked to increased risk of stone formation.

Alternative Treatment

Multivitamin – A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins and trace minerals, such as magnesium, zinc, and selenium.

Magnesium citrate used for symptoms of kidney stones. In sensitive people, magnesium can cause loose stools or a drop in blood pressure.

Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, helps to help reduce inflammation and promote general health. Cold-water fish, such as salmon or halibut, are good sources. Fish oil supplements can increase the effects of certain blood-thinning medications.

Vitamin B6 also commonly referred to as pyridoxine has been found to have exceptional curative success when it comes to curing kidney stones.

IP-6 (Inositol hexophosphonate) taken on an empty stomach, for kidney health.

N-acetyl cysteine, for antioxidant effects.

Probiotic supplement a day, for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. Refrigerate probiotic supplements for best results.

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) standardized extract, for antioxidant and immune effects.

Uva Ursi – On top of enabling to combat infections that are triggered with the onset of kidney stones, Uva Ursi also functions in assisting in pain reduction and cleansing of the urinary tract.

Dandelion Root – The dandelion root has been used for years to treat and manage the symptoms associated with kidney stones. In addition to relieving the pain triggered by kidney stones, organic dandelion root functions in cleansing the urinary tract.

Milk thistle for detoxification support.

Grapefruit seed extract for antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity.

 

Reference –

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/urology-kidney/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones-overview

http://bindingofisaacrebirth.gamepedia.com/Kidney_Stone

http://www.healthcommunities.com/kidney-stones/kidney-stones-overview.shtml

http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/urologic-disease/kidney-stones-in-adults/Documents/KidneyStonesAdults_508.pdf

http://patient.info/health/kidney-stones

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Kidney-stones/Pages/Symptoms.aspx

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones/basics/symptoms/con-20024829

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154193.php

http://www.kidney.org.au/your-kidneys/detect/kidney-stones/the-causes-437

http://www.kidneyfund.org/kidney-problems/kidney-stones/symptoms-of-kidney-stones/

http://www.livescience.com/42784-kidney-stones-causes-treatments.html

https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/kidney-stone-analysis/tab/sample/

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/liver-kidney-and-urinary-system/a3026/kidney-stones/

Posted in NUTRITION